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Practical Application of Intermolecular Forces

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Presentation on theme: "Practical Application of Intermolecular Forces"— Presentation transcript:

1 Practical Application of Intermolecular Forces
A Study of Adhesives

2 Introduction Adhesive – The name for the glue. There are many types of adhesives, which include: Yellow and White Glue Instant Glue Contact Cement Polyurethane Glue Epoxy Glue Spray Adhesive Construction Glue Hot Glue Substrates – The material that is being glued together. Plastic, wood, metal, ceramic, glass, rubber, etc.

3 VOCAB adhesion—the force of attraction between unlike molecules; the property of a material that allows it to stick better to something else than to itself cohesion—the force of attraction between like molecules; the property of a material that allows it to stick better to itself than to something else  dipole moment—the measure of net molecular polarity, where if the difference in electronegativity between atoms is sufficient the resulting molecule will be polar van der Waals forces—an alternative name for intermolecular forces, in honor of Dutch scientist Johannes van der Waals

4 intermolecular force—an attraction between molecules that holds them together, such as: 
dipole-dipole force—result of electrical interactions among neutral but polar molecules  hydrogen bond—result of electrical interaction between a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative O,N, or F atom and an unshared electron pair on another nearby electronegative atom ion-dipole force—result of electrical interactions between an ion and the partial charges of a polar molecule London dispersion force—result of instantaneous and temporary electrical interaction among molecules that are electrically neutral and that have a zero dipole moment

5 What characteristics do glues share with liquids and solids?
How do you think glues work? How can we test the intermolecular forces of each adhesive? Who can provide a hypothesis for this experiment? What variables do we need to account for? What data should we collect?

6 An adhesive is a substance that sticks to the surface of an object such that two surfaces become bonded. In order for an adhesive to bond (hold together) to the substrate, there must be several types of molecular interaction between the adhesive and both substrates.

7 The adhesive will “wet” or cover the substrate, when the Intermolecular forces between the glue and the substrate are stronger than the Intermolecular forces between the glue and glue. Why does the Elmer’s glue stick to this piece of paper? Glue hardens when there is a loss of water from the formula. Exposure to the atmosphere will cause the water to evaporate and make the glue harden.

8 Good wetting occurs if the adhesive spreads out over the substrate in a uniform film and in doing so makes a lower degree contact angle between the substrate and the adhesives Poor wetting occurs when the adhesive forms droplets on the surface making a higher degree contact angle

9 For an adhesive to wet a surface, the adhesive should have a lower surface tension, than the solid’s surface energy (or critical surface tension), A shows a fluid with very little wetting, while C shows a fluid with more wetting. A has a large contact angle, and C has a small contact angle.

10 Adhesive viscosity refers to the resistance for the glue to flow in relation to its IMFs . A low viscous adhesive will flow into the spaces and gaps in the substrates surface producing maximum coverage forming a mechanical bond to the substrate. Would Wil E. Coyote’s glue really stick to the sand in the desert and form a substrate that would adhere a roadrunner?

11 Ask the students if they know why?

12 Adhesive Curing Once the adhesive is applied to the substrate, it will begin to cure, or form a permanent bond Different Adhesives have different mechanisms in which the curing takes place

13 Drying: As the liquid solvent evaporates or is absorbed by the substrate, the solid adhesive is left behind, causing the bond to form These adhesives come ready to use and set to a colorless glue line at room temperature by losing water. Elmer’s glue is one example.

14 Cooling: The adhesive is applied hot, and when cooled it becomes a solid, producing the bond
Mostly animal glues, these glues are applied hot and cure by cooling

15 Chemical Reaction: For two part adhesives, there is a reaction that occurs to form a crossed link adhesive Often called Epoxy this glue is a thermosetting polymer formed from reaction of an epoxide "resin" with polyamine "hardener".

16 Moisture Cure: Adhesive absorbs water from the atmosphere or substrate to form a polymer layer

17 UV Cure: Ultraviolet light is absorbed by the polymer to form crosslinks that cure very quickly.
Mostly used in industrial applications, these adhesives are used in manufacturing electronics and create a very strong bond

18 Anaerobic Adhesives: When deprived of oxygen, the adhesive hardens to form the bond
Aerobic adhesives remain liquid until isolated from oxygen in the presence of metal ions, such as iron or copper. For example, when an anaerobic adhesive is sealed between a nut and a bolt on a threaded assembly, it rapidly “cures” or hardens to form a tough cross-linked plastic with tenacious adhesion to many metals. Used mainly in engineering

19 How a glue stick works When an adhesive is pasted on the surface of a material (adherend), the adhesive penetrates into the small gaps on the adherend surface, and then hardens and does not move any more inside the gap. It is thought that this inability to move is one of the reasons that things attach together. This effect is called the “anchor effect“, because like a ship with a dropped anchor the adhesive does not move. There are chemical bonds between adhesive molecules and adherend molecules, which also make them stick together. These bonds are, for example, hydrogen bond, Van der Waals bond, ionic bond, and covalent bond.    Thus, adhesion occurs not as a single effect but as the sum of several effects above. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), the major component of a glue stick, also adheres by several effects such as anchor effect and intermolecular forces. There are also hydrogen bonds (O=C∙∙∙∙∙OH-) between carbonyl groups in PVP and hydroxyl groups in paper.    On the other hand, since the attraction force is generated when one molecule comes close to another molecule, it is necessary that the adhesive is brought near to the solid surface by liquid. Because the penetration of the adhesive into the adherend surface is important for adhesion, and the strength of adhesion depends on several effects above, we cannot always say, “to feel sticky = to have adhesive force”.

20 But if you take two pretty flat items -- two sheets of glass, for instance -- and sandwich them together with just a tiny bit of water, they will stick together with amazing tenacity. The water fills in the gaps, and helps the glass surfaces come into close enough contact that their own electromagnetic forces can make the two panes of glass adhere. The water is acting as a glue. And this is how glue generally behaves whenever two items are pasted together.

21 Rough and smooth If you look at most surfaces through a microscope, you will find that they are not smooth. What an adhesive does is fill in the gaps and build a bridge between two surfaces. The adhesive must then harden, so that the bond stays together.

22 So What sticks to what? In the following lab you will investigate wetting and curing with some commonly used household glues

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