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Maintenance and Motivation

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1 Maintenance and Motivation
Needs Theories #2 – Frederick Herzberg – Maintenance and Motivation

2 Frederick Herzberg drew on Maslow’s theory of human needs and expanded it. He replaced a single hierarchy of needs with two sets of factors. In Herzberg’s theory, only the second set was really useful in motivating employees. Maintenance factors (‘hygiene’). These have a tendency to cause dissatisfaction. Maintenance factors include: ■ pay ■ job security ■ working conditions ■ interpersonal relations in the workplace ■ organisational rules and policies. These factors are extrinsic to the job. According to Herzberg, maintenance factors do not necessarily motivate employees.

3 Motivational factors (‘satisfiers’). These can create job satisfaction.
Motivational factors include: achievement the work itself recognition responsibility opportunities for advancement. These factors are intrinsic because they are mainly derived from the work itself.

4 Herzberg’s motivation–maintenance model reminds managers that some factors, which may seem positive, can have little impact on performance. Investing in maintenance factors may not get the results management expects. If the aim is to motivate staff, Herzberg suggests a focus on factors that enrich the job and satisfy the employee. His model states that reward systems should include both financial and non-financial rewards.

5 Goals Theories Edwin Locke

6 Edwin Locke’s motivation theory is not a needs theory; it is known as goal theory. Locke argued that it is misguided to attempt to motivate workers by making their working lives more satisfying. According to Locke, satisfaction comes from achieving defined goals. He argued the more challenging the goals, the greater will be the effort put in and also the satisfaction enjoyed by the worker. Difficult goals, when accepted by workers, result in higher performance and increased productivity. In Locke’s view, goals should not be imposed on workers from above but set through consultation.

7 For the theory to get results in modern workplaces, Locke says it should include:
Participation by workers in setting goals. The process by which goals are set should involve elements of negotiation between workers and management. The goals must be realistic. Guidance and advice from management. While always significant, the more challenging the goals, the more important this aspect of the theory becomes. Management feedback on performance. Feedback on goals achieved and progress towards other goals is vital in maintaining the motivation of workers.

8 Locke’s motivation theory is based on the assumption that people will strive to do what they say they will do. The theory sits well with the use of performance indicators (KPIs) and the system of management by objectives and reward management There is continuing debate about the worth of the different motivation theories. Because people and work situations are so varied, managers should approach each work situation and apply the theory that best suits the expectations of the employees.

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