2 Criticism of TourismTourism has attracted as both praise and criticism:Praise for its potential or real economic contributionsCriticism for its adverse affect on places and host residents.The challenge for tourism managers, planners and researchers is to find ways to develop tourism as an industry providing travel experiences which are rewarding and sustainable for both hosts and guests.
3 Sustainable TourismAccording to the WTO, sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing the opportunity for the future.Sustainable tourism emphasize three important features:Quality: A quality experience for visitors, quality of life for the host community, protecting the quality of the environment.Continuity: continuity of natural resources, continuity of the culture of the host communityBalance: balances the needs of the tourism industry, supporters of the environment, and the local community.
4 The Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism Defining Society and ImpactsSociety refers to the patterns of social organization of and within communities.Social impacts of tourism refers to changes in the lives of people living in destination communities.Cultural impacts of tourism refers to changes in the arts, artifacts, customs, rituals, and architecture of a people.The term socio-cultural impacts refers to changes to resident’s everyday experiences, as well as to their values, way of life, and intellectual and artistic products.
5 The Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism Major socio-cultural impactsFactor associated with TourismPositive ImpactsNegative ImpactsThe use of culture as a tourist attractionIncreased support for traditional cultures and displays of ethnic identity.Changes to traditional activities and arts to suit production for tourists. Disruption and crowding of traditional activities.Direct contact between residents and touristsBreakdown of negative stereotypes. Increased social opportunities.Enhancement of negative stereotypes. Increased commercialism. Introduction of diseases. Demonstration effectsChanges in jobs and economic structure resulting in changes in social rolesNew economic and social opportunities which decrease social inequity.Community conflict and tensionIncreased social inequityLoss of languageDevelopment of tourist facilitiesIncreased recreational opportunitiesLoss of access to places and recreational activities.Increase population from tourists and associated development.Support for medical, educational and other facilities which enhance quality of life.Crowding and congestion increased crime
6 The Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism Cultural ChangeChanges in cultural products and festivals: The production of cultural arts and activities for tourists has often resulted in changes in cultural products, cultural festivals, ceremonies, and dances to make them more palatable to visitors.Negative stereotypes: Int’l tourists and residents often have very different cultural backgrounds and it develops negative stereotypes of tourists from their direct encounters.Community Conflict: Demonstration effect - different approaches exposed to tourists by the younger and older residents of a community.
7 The Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism Other ImpactsCompetition for tourist businessIncreased economic inequityRenewed interest in and opportunities for revival in the use of local languagesThe adoption by local residents of other languagesThe development of facilities for touristsIncreased income and an improved quality of life for host communities.Increases in population leading to problems with crowding, congestion, and crime.
8 The Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism Factors Related to Individual Perceptions of TourismResidents who are likely to benefit from tourism are more likely to support tourism.People with greater of involvement in and knowledge of tourism tend to support the industry.Communities which have had little contact with outsiders have greater difficulty dealing with tourism than those with a longer history of dealing with other cultures.Media portrayals of tourism can influence host perceptions by providing information which is used in the social construction of reality and which influence public opinion.
9 Strategies to Manage Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism Obstacles to Socio-cultural UnderstandingCultural shock refers to the totality of reactions to new people and settings which result in ineffective behaviors. Cultural shock may be experienced by either visitors or their hosts.Cultural arrogance is defined as the continued practice of following one’s own cultural rules while disregarding the feelings and perspectives of the host community.Tourist behaviors that breaking known morale, religious or social codes are example of continuing arrogance on the part of the visitors.
10 Strategies to Manage Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism Pre-travel informationOn-site interpretationSocietal marketing practicesFacility designA range of culture contact opportunitiesEvaluation skillsExplanation of tourism issuesCommunity involvement in tourism planningDeveloping conflict resolution skills
11 The Relationship Between Culture and Tourism Culture Shaping Outbound TourismSouth Korean ExampleTourist activities and their valuesSouth vs. North EuropeansCultural differences generate a strong preference for Chinese, French, Japanese and Italian tourists.Golf is a high status sport by Koreans and Japanese but not for Australians.Tour guides perceive various nationalities as having different behaviors.Japanese travelers were thought to travel in groups while the French tourists were thought to be more individually oriented in their vacation behavior.
12 The Relationship Between Culture and Tourism Culture Shaping inbound TourismPopular cultureCultural icons:England: British Museum, Tower of LondonFrance: Pompidou CentreU.S.: Disney WorldMost popular categories of cultural tourism attractionsMuseums (59 percent)Historic monuments ( 37 percent)Heritage centers ( 37 percent)Art galleries ( 24 percent)Performing arts ( 22 percent)
13 The Relationship Between Culture and Tourism Culture Shaping inbound TourismUrban TourismUrban tourism focuses on the mix of attractions which motivate travel to major population centers.New York City can be seen as an example of urban tourism.Ethnic Tourism refers to tourism focused on a group’s traditions and lifestyle.Viewing local festivals, attending special ceremonies, watching local activities.
14 Interpretation for Sustainable Tourism Interpretation can be seen as any activity which seeks to give tourists information about the place they are visiting.Interpretation improves the quality of the experience for the visitors.Educating tourists about the nature of the host region and culture and informing them of the consequences of their behavior.Enhancing the quality of visitor experiences by adding value to tourism productsDeveloping tourist support for both cultural and environmental conservation.Relieving pressure on sites by controlling access, by distributing visitors more evenly throughout an area
15 Interpretation for Sustainable Tourism Principles for Enhancing the Effectiveness of InterpretationInterpretation must be effectiveInterpreters must make a personal link with the visitorInterpreters should present a whole rather than a partInterpreters must provide variety in interpretative experiences