Many Animals and Microscopic Creatures Live in the Soil!
Grazing Animals Depend On the Plants in the Soil for Food!
Soil Helps Soak Up Rainwater So We Don’t Have Flooding!
Soil Components True soil is made up of 4 key components. Think MOMA to remember them Minerals Organic Material & Bacteria Moisture Air
Soil Components… 1. Minerals: Minerals such as calcium, phosphorous and Potassium are nutrients that are found in the soil and are required for plant growth. Minerals come from rock material known as parent material Minerals are acquired through the weathering (breaking down) process into smaller elements such as sand, silt and clay
Soil Components… 2. Organic Material & Bacteria: The organic material is flowers, grass, trees/branches etc that are dead and on the ground When plants and animals die they are decomposed (broken down) by bacteria in the soil (think mold on cheese or bread) Decaying organic materials form humus, which provides nutrients and moisture for plants. - Humus is dark in colour and found on the surface or O horizon (layer)
Soil Components… 3. Moisture: - Water dissolves nutrients and is absorbed by the roots of plants. - Water also necessary dissolve minerals and help in the decay of organic material.
Soil Components… 4. Air: - P lants need air most around their roots and within 30cm of the surface Lots of loose humus near roots allows for lots of air spaces Air spaces are also created by worms and ants and other insects and small animals which tunnel through the soil.
Soil Profile Soil Profiles: A profile is a side view of something… Soil is made up of many layers or horizons The Profile is the different layers between the O horizon and the D (or R) (bedrock) Each horizon is composed of different rock, minerals and vegetation combinations
Natural Vegetation Regions Natural vegetation: plants that grow without human interference 3 main types in Canada : – tundra (lichens and mosses) – forest (trees) – grassland
Natural Regions 7 natural regions (which gradually change one into the next through transition zones) Tundra Boreal & Taiga Forest Mixed Forest Deciduous Forest Grassland; Short and Long Grassland/ Parkland Cordilleran Vegetation West Coast Forest. Each Natural vegetation regions has unique vegetation characteristics that usually can be connected to regions climate.
Vegetation RegionClimateSummer/ WinterSoilsNatural Vegetation Tundra cold, dry, ( very little precipitation) short summer short growing season thin soil, permafrostshrubs, mosses, lichens, small flowers Boreal and Taiga more precipitationLonger growing seasonLeeching, shallow humus, grey, acidic soil Largest vegetation region Coniferous trees Mixed Harsh climate lots of precipitation Warm summers, cool winters Humus creates deep grey-brown topsoil rich in minerals, little leeching, good for farming Deciduous and coniferous trees, shrubs Deciduous lots of precipitationLong hot summers, mild winters, More humus, dark brown, leeching, most fertile in eastern hardwood trees, some deciduous forest Grassland - short - long - parkland Dry, warm Little rainfall Hot summers, cold winters Limited humus, (long- grass prairie has more humus = best in ) calcification A few trees, many grasses, cactus, Cordilleran Vegetation Wide range of temperature and rain fall Warm-cool summers, cold winters Range of soilsvaries West Coast Mild climate, heavy rain fall Warm dry summers, mild wet winters Humus, leechingLush forests