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Some Important Sociological Concepts
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 2 Social Interaction Social interaction: the ways in which people respond to one another How we interact with people is shaped by our perception of their position relative to our own Meanings we ascribe to others’ actions reflect norms and values of the dominant culture – Ability to define social reality reflects a group’s power within a society
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 3 Sociological Concept of Status Status is not what people think of a person, status is a position within a group or society. A status carries with it a set of culturally defined rights and duties, which sociologists call a role.
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 4 Sociological Concept- Roles A status carries with it a set of culturally defined rights and duties, which sociologists call a role. – Role performance is the actual behavior of the person who occupies a status. – A single status may have multiple roles attached to it, constituting a role set. – Role conflict results when individuals are confronted with conflicting expectations stemming from their simultaneous occupancy of two or more statuses. – Role strain occurs when individuals find the expectations of a single role incompatible, so that they have difficulty performing the role. – Duties and rights are complementary
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 5 Social Roles Social role: set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status Role conflict: occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person; or when individuals move into occupations not common among people with their ascribed status
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 6 Social Roles Role strain: difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations Role exit: process of disengagement from a role central to one’s self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 7 Groups Group – two or more people who are bound in stable patterns of social interaction, with a sense of unity In time, four things can happen: Development of boundary with “in” and “out” Group develops “objective” existence Group obtains distinct subculture Members develop sense of allegiance
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 8 Types of Groups Primary—a small group, based on face to face contact with strong ties between all members. Secondary– formal, relatively distant ties between members
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 9 Comparison of Primary and Secondary Groups
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 10 Types of Groups In-group: any group or category to which people feel they belong Out-group: any group or category to which people feel they do not belong Conflict between in-groups and out- groups can turn violent on personal as well as political level
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 11 Types of Groups Reference group: any group individuals use as standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior –Two basic purposes: set and enforce standards of conduct and belief; serve as standard against which people can measure themselves and others Coalition: temporary or permanent alliance geared toward common goal –Can be broad based or narrow
© Copyright 2009 Alan S. Berger12 Institutions Social institutions are: Family, Medical, educational, economic, religious, legal and political systems. Generic definition: organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 13 Functionalist View of Institutions Views them as fulfilling essential functions 1.Reproduce membership 2.Reproduce culture 3.Produce and distribute goods and services 4.Preserve order 5.Provide and maintain a sense of meaning and purpose
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 14 Functionalist View of Institutions Major institutions help maintain privileges of most powerful individuals and groups within society while contributing to the powerlessness of others Can also view them as reinforcing inequality
© Copyright 2009 Alan S. Berger15 Interaction View Others view institutions as the pattern of our everyday interactions to and use them to understand how we think and act the way we do Certain kinds of large institutions today are typically described as bureaucracies.
© Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Company 16 Bureaucracy Bureaucracy: a formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency In an industrial society, elements of bureaucracy enter into almost every occupation
Groups Terms and Titles….
CHAPTER 4 Social Structure- Network of interrelated statuses.
Social Interaction and Social Groups
Unit 2: Culture and Society
SOCIAL STRUCTURE SWBAT Define & explain the terms given in the lesson Apply the terms to their own lives.
Chapter 4 Social Structure
CHAPTER 3 Social Structure
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chapter Four Society and Social Interaction. Society Society is a large grouping that shares the same territory and is subject to the same political authority.
Social Structure & Interaction in Everyday Life
Social Structure and Interaction in Everyday Life
GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Sociology In Our Times Chapter 5:
Groups within Society Chapter 4, section 4 Pgs
Building Blocks of Social Structure Chapter 4 – Section 1.
Chapter Four - Social Structure. Food For Thought u “We are none of us truly isolated; we are connected to one another by a web of regularities and by.
CHAPTER 4 Social Structure
3. Groups Consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and feeling of interdependance.
Social Groups and Organizations Chapter 6. Learning Objectives Distinguish between primary and secondary groups. Explain the functions of groups.
By: Mrs. Brown ‘10. Society- page 126 in your text book. Social groups- Chapter 5 in other text book Institution – Chapter 5 in other text book.
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