Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1—An Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Carbon"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1—An Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Carbon
2 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds(especially compounds containing C-C bonds)The field of organic chemistry is very important for a wide variety of reasons.A huge number of carbon-containing compounds are known.More than 16 million known compoundsAbout 90% of new compounds made each year contain carbon
3 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Most of the advances in the pharmaceutical industry are based on a knowledge of organic chemistry.Many drugs are organic compoundsLife as we know it is based on organic chemistry.Most biologically important compounds contain carbon:DNA, RNAproteinscarbohydrates
4 Organic CompoundsOrganic compounds are those compounds found in any organism that is living or was once living containing carbon. Compounds lacking carbon and not from living organisms referred to as “inorganic”.
5 Organic CompoundsOrganic compounds are those compounds found in any organism that is living or was once living containing carbon.
6 Carbon – The Element of Life Carbon’s unique atomic structure allows it to covalently bond with up to four other atomsCarbon is the simplest element on the periodic table that also has four valence electronsCarbon is neither electronegative nor electropositiveDrawings of carbon and it’s bonding ability:
7 Carbon—The Element of Life Most organic compounds have a “skeleton” that is composed of C-C bonds.The C-C bonds may be single bonds, double bonds, or triple bonds.The “skeleton” of an organic compound has H’s attached to it.other “heteroatoms” like O, halogens or N may be present as well
8 CarbonThe number of bonds formed by C in an organic compound is determined by the electron configuration of C.Carbon has four valence electrons:1s22s22p2
9 Carbon Carbon generally forms 4 equivalent bonds. The formation of four equivalent bonds is best explained using the concept of hybrid orbitals.Hybrid orbitals
10 Hybrid Orbitals & Carbon When C forms four single bonds:sp3 hybrid orbitals are involved tetrahedral geometryWhen C forms a double bond:sp2 hybrid orbitals are used trigonal planar geometryWhen C forms a triple bond:sp hybrid orbitals are used linear geometry
11 Bonding in Organic Compounds Organic compounds contain not onlyC-C bonds but also C-H bonds.C-C and C-H bonds tend to be non-polar because there is a small difference in electronegativitesMost (but not all) organic compounds are relatively non-polargenerally not very soluble in water
12 Structural FormulasWhen we write a simple chemical formula, such as CH4, we are actually writing what we call a molecular formulaMolecular Formulas – show the atoms and the number of atoms involved in a molecule but nothing elseIn organic chemistry, it is often more useful to show structural formulas insteadStructural Formulas – show each type of atom and how they are arranged in a molecule
13 Structural Formulas CH4 H H - C - H H Molecular Formula Structural Formula 3-D Structure
14 IsomersStructural formulas are important in organic chemistry because of isomersIsomers are two compounds with the SAME MOLECULAR formulas but different structural formulas-- they have different chemical and physical propertiesC3H8O
15 Types of Organic Compounds The simplest organic compounds are the hydrocarbons:organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogenfour general types:alkanesalkenesalkynesaromatic hydrocarbons
16 Types of Organic Compounds Alkanes:hydrocarbons that contain only single bondsExamples:Methane CH4Ethane C2H6Alkenes:hydrocarbons that contain a C = C double bondH2C = CH2 (ethylene)
17 Types of Organic Compounds Alkynes:hydrocarbons that contain a C C triple bondH – C C – H (acetylene)There are others to follow but these are the first three simplest organic molecules.
18 Functional GroupsOrganic compounds that are soluble in polar solvents such as water generally have a polar functional group present in the molecule.An atom or group of atoms that influences the way the molecule functions, reacts or behaves.An atom or group of atoms in a molecule that undergoes predictable chemical reactionsThe center of reactivity in an organic molecule
19 Functional GroupsSince functional groups are responsible for the many of the chemical and physical properties of organic compounds, we often classify and study organic compounds by the type of functional group present.
22 Functional Groups CH3CH2OH H2C = CHCOH CH3CH2NCH3 CH3 Example: Name the functional groups that are present in the following compounds:CH3CH2OHOH2C = CHCOHCH3CH2NCH3CH3
23 Major Classifications 1)Acyclic—contains no rings in the structure2)Carbocyclic—contains at least one ring only made up of carbon3)Heterocyclic—contains at least one ring that has an element other than carbon in itacycliccarbocyclicheterocyclic