1 Speaker Occasion Audience Purpose Subject Tone SOAPSToneSpeakerOccasionAudiencePurposeSubjectTone
2 The voice that tells the story. SOAPSToneSpeakerThe voice that tells the story.This voice can belong to a fictional character or to the writers themselves.Effective writers determine how to insert and develop those attributes of the speaker that will influence the perceived meaning of the piece.When analyzing the speaker, consider age, gender, socio-economic class, political or religious bias, level of education, and any other noteworthy traits.
3 Writing does not occur in a vacuum. SOAPSToneOccasionThe context that prompted the writing.Writing does not occur in a vacuum.All writers are influenced by the larger occasion: an environment of ideas, attitudes, and emotions that swirl around a broad issue. Then there is the immediate occasion: an event or situation that catches the writer's attention and triggers a response.
4 The group of readers to whom this piece is directed. SOAPSToneAudienceThe group of readers to whom this piece is directed.Before authors begin to write, they must determine who the audience is that they intend to address.This choice of audience will affect how and why authors write a particular text.When analyzing audience, examine how the author uses specific vocabulary to reach a specific type of person. Consider race, politics, gender, social class, religion, level of education, historical period, or anything else of note.
5 SOAPSTone Purpose The reason behind the text. What was the author intending to accomplish by writing this?This might include things like self-reflection, entertainment, information, persuasion, identification of a problem, enlightenment, financial gain, attention-getting, or emotional expression.
6 Subject The central topic. What is the main focus of the piece? SOAPSToneSubjectThe central topic.What is the main focus of the piece?
7 Tone is different from mood. SOAPSToneToneTone is the author’s/narrator’s attitude toward the subject.The ability to manage tone is one of the best indicators of a sophisticated writer.Tone is different from mood.When analyzing tone, think about what emotions the author/narrator conveys and how.Consider: diction (word choice), figurative language, characterization, plot, theme, and structure.