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Chapter 10.2 – Public Policy

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1 Chapter 10.2 – Public Policy

2 Before the Endangered Species Act
Lacey Act Regulated interstate transfer of wildlife 1966 Endangered Species Preservation Act Authorized listing of 77 species, mostly vertebrates Authorized land acquisition Endangered Species Conservation Act Expanded list (worldwide species and invertebrates) Required measures to enlist international agreement CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) Agreement among 80 nations to ensure that trade does not threaten species survival

3 1973 Endangered Species Act
Aleutian Canada goose USFWS photo Gives joint authority to Fish and Wildlife Service and NOAA (Fisheries) – must compile a list of all threatened and endangered species Allows protection for all species – endangered and threatened species may not be caught or killed. Their homes may not be uprooted. No part of their body may be sold or traded. Fed may not carry out any project that jeopardizes an endangered species. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service must prepare a recovery plan for each threatened or endangered species. Desert tortoise habitat USFWS photo American alligator USFWS photo

4 Key Definitions West Indian manatee USFWS photo Endangered Any species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range Oregon silverspot butterfly Photo by Jim Botoroff Threatened Any species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future Critical Habitat Specific geographic areas with physical and biological features essential to the conservation of a listed species Critical habitat USFWS photo

5 Listing Identifying species for possible designation as “endangered” or “threatened” Citizen may “petition” the Fish and Wildlife Service, or Fish and Wildlife Service may identify species through internal studies and discussion with States, academia, and other experts in the scientific community Petitioned for listing: the southern California mountain yellow-legged frog.

6 Listed Species by State
Endangered and threatened species are found throughout the United States. More than 1200 species of fish, wildlife, and plants are currently listed.

7 Recovery Goals Reduce or eliminate threats to listed animals and plants Restore self-sustaining wild populations Remove species from the list Recovery “is the process by which the decline of an endangered or threatened species is arrested or reversed, and threats to its survival are neutralized, so that its long-term survival in nature can be ensured. The goal of this process is the maintenance of secure, self-sustaining wild populations of species with the minimum necessary investment of resources. A recovery plan delineates, justifies, and schedules the research and management actions necessary to support recovery of a species, including those that, if successfully undertaken, are likely to permit reclassification or delisting of the species.” Policy and Guidelines for Planning and Coordinating Recovery of Endangered and Threatened Species, May Currently under revision as the Recovery Handbook. Whooping crane, a recovering species

8 Recovery Recovering listed species requires Fish and Wildlife Service and other Federal agency actions. States and private landowners are critical recovery partners. The Fish and Wildlife Service assists through grants and other incentives. The Los Angeles Zoo’s captive breeding program raises California condors for release into the Ventana Wilderness Area.

9 Delisting Delisting criteria identified in the species’ recovery plan
Federal Register notice published and public comment sought on proposal to delist Recovered species monitored for five years American peregrine falcon, delisted in 1999.

10 Cooperation with the States
Recognizes States’ key role in conserving wildlife and plants Provides funding to States with which the Fish and Wildlife Service has cooperative agreements Six states have received funding to monitor and manage reintroduced black-footed ferrets.

11 Worldwide Efforts Several organizations work to protect species worldwide: World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Nature Conservancy Friends of Earth Greenpeace Sea Shepherd Conservation Society Many, many more

12 International Government
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Gave rise to CITES – Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Worked to stop the slaughter of African Elephants for their tusks (made of ivory). The Biodiversity Treaty Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992. Wealthier countries give money to poorer countries. George H.W. Bush refused to sign. Bill Clinton signed a year later.


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