2 Before the Endangered Species Act Lacey ActRegulated interstate transfer of wildlife1966 Endangered Species Preservation ActAuthorized listing of 77 species, mostly vertebratesAuthorized land acquisitionEndangered Species Conservation ActExpanded list (worldwide species and invertebrates)Required measures to enlist international agreementCITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)Agreement among 80 nations to ensure that trade does not threaten species survival
3 1973 Endangered Species Act Aleutian Canada goose USFWS photoGives joint authority to Fish and Wildlife Service and NOAA (Fisheries) – must compile a list of all threatened and endangered speciesAllows protection for all species – endangered and threatened species may not be caught or killed. Their homes may not be uprooted. No part of their body may be sold or traded.Fed may not carry out any project that jeopardizes an endangered species.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service must prepare a recovery plan for each threatened or endangered species.Desert tortoise habitat USFWS photoAmerican alligator USFWS photo
4 Key DefinitionsWest Indian manatee USFWS photoEndangered Any species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its rangeOregon silverspot butterfly Photo by Jim BotoroffThreatened Any species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable futureCritical Habitat Specific geographic areas with physical and biological features essential to the conservation of a listed speciesCritical habitat USFWS photo
5 ListingIdentifying species for possible designation as “endangered” or “threatened”Citizen may “petition” the Fish and Wildlife Service, orFish and Wildlife Service may identify species through internal studies and discussion with States, academia, and other experts in the scientific communityPetitioned for listing: the southern California mountain yellow-legged frog.
6 Listed Species by State Endangered and threatened species are found throughout the United States. More than 1200 species of fish, wildlife, and plants are currently listed.
7 RecoveryGoalsReduce or eliminate threats to listed animals and plantsRestore self-sustaining wild populationsRemove species from the listRecovery “is the process by which the decline of an endangered or threatened species is arrested or reversed, and threats to its survival are neutralized, so that its long-term survival in nature can be ensured. The goal of this process is the maintenance of secure, self-sustaining wild populations of species with the minimum necessary investment of resources. A recovery plan delineates, justifies, and schedules the research and management actions necessary to support recovery of a species, including those that, if successfully undertaken, are likely to permit reclassification or delisting of the species.”Policy and Guidelines for Planning and Coordinating Recovery of Endangered and Threatened Species, May Currently under revision as the Recovery Handbook.Whooping crane, a recovering species
8 RecoveryRecovering listed species requires Fish and Wildlife Service and other Federal agency actions.States and private landowners are critical recovery partners. The Fish and Wildlife Service assists through grants and other incentives.The Los Angeles Zoo’s captive breeding program raises California condors for release into the Ventana Wilderness Area.
9 Delisting Delisting criteria identified in the species’ recovery plan Federal Register notice published and public comment sought on proposal to delistRecovered species monitored for five yearsAmerican peregrine falcon, delisted in 1999.
10 Cooperation with the States Recognizes States’ key role in conserving wildlife and plantsProvides funding to States with which the Fish and Wildlife Service has cooperative agreementsSix states have received funding to monitor and manage reintroduced black-footed ferrets.
11 Worldwide EffortsSeveral organizations work to protect species worldwide:World Wildlife Fund (WWF)Nature ConservancyFriends of EarthGreenpeaceSea Shepherd Conservation SocietyMany, many more
12 International Government International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)Gave rise to CITES – Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.Worked to stop the slaughter of African Elephants for their tusks (made of ivory).The Biodiversity TreatyRio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992.Wealthier countries give money to poorer countries.George H.W. Bush refused to sign. Bill Clinton signed a year later.