Presentation on theme: "Water Pollution. Water Framework Directive 2000Water Framework Directive entered into force 2003 Transpose requirements to national legislation Define."— Presentation transcript:
Water Framework Directive 2000Water Framework Directive entered into force 2003 Transpose requirements to national legislation Define River Basin Districts and Authorities 2004 Characterise river basins: pressures, impact and economic analysis2005Identify significant trends in groundwater pollution 2006 Establish environmental monitoring programmes Publish and consult on a work programme for the production of the first River Basin Management Plans (RBMPs) Establish environmental quality standards (EQSs) for surface water
2007 Report monitoring programmes to the EC Publish and consult on summary of significant water management issues (SWMI) for each River Basin District 2008 Publish and consult on drafts of the RBMPs2009 Publish the first RBMP for each River Basin District Establish programmes of measures (PoMs) in each River Basin District in order to deliver environmental objectives
2010 Report RBMPs, including PoMs to the EC Introduce water pricing policies 2012 Ensure all POMs are fully operational Report progress in implementing the first RBMPs 2013 Review progress of the first RBMP cycle2015Main environmental objectives specified in the first RBMPs met?2015Review and update first RBMPs 2021 Main environmental objectives specified in the second RBMPs met? Review and update second RBMPs 2027 Main environmental objectives specified in the third RBMPs met? Review and update third RBMPs
The criminal offences A person shall not cause or permit the entry of pollution matter to enter waters Cause Permit Entry Polluting matter Waters
EU water directives GENERAL FRAMEWORK –Water protection and management (Water Framework Directive)Water protection and management (Water Framework Directive) –Pricing and long-term management of waterPricing and long-term management of water –Flood management and evaluationFlood management and evaluation –Water scarcity and droughts in the European UnionWater scarcity and droughts in the European Union SPECIFIC USES OF WATER –Quality of drinking waterQuality of drinking water –Bathing waterBathing water –Bathing water qualityBathing water quality –Urban waste water treatmentUrban waste water treatment –Water suitable for fish-breedingWater suitable for fish-breeding –Quality of shellfish watersQuality of shellfish waters MARINE POLLUTION –Strategy for the marine environmentStrategy for the marine environment –Maritime safety: compensation fund for oil pollution damageMaritime safety: compensation fund for oil pollution damage –Maritime safety: prevention of pollution from shipsMaritime safety: prevention of pollution from ships –Ship-source pollution and criminal penaltiesShip-source pollution and criminal penalties –Maritime safety: prohibition of organotin compounds on shipsMaritime safety: prohibition of organotin compounds on ships –Maritime safety: Bunkers ConventionMaritime safety: Bunkers Convention
DISCHARGES OF SUBSTANCES –Integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC Directive)Integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC Directive) –quality standards applicable to surface waterquality standards applicable to surface water –Protection of groundwater against pollutionProtection of groundwater against pollution –DetergentsDetergents –Elimination and minimisation of production, use and release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)Elimination and minimisation of production, use and release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) –Pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sourcesPollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources –Maximum concentrations of certain industrial Mercury dischargesMaximum concentrations of certain industrial Mercury discharges –Community strategy concerning mercuryCommunity strategy concerning mercury –Protection of the aquatic environment against discharges of dangerous substances (until 2013)Protection of the aquatic environment against discharges of dangerous substances (until 2013) –Other substances: protection of groundwaterOther substances: protection of groundwater
Overall structure Civil and Criminal Offences WQMPs/RBMPs Environmental Standards Special controls for drinking, salmonid, shellfish, groundwaters Nitrates and Phosphates directives
To find implementing regs Use BALII, Irish Regulations and input Directive 2000/60/EC and you will get all water regs after 2000.
How do we know it is polluting? Definition- injury to beneficial uses or fish or fish food Emission and quality standards in Irish and EU legislation and codes of practice Biological testing
What is “causing”? Giving rise to a state of affairs without which the polluting incident could not have occurred Maguire – operating a pig farm Shannon Fisheries v Cavan – operating a sewage treatment plant Fenton v Wicklow Co Co – operating a landfill Doesn’t matter if operator morally innocent or if vandals etc were the main cause Operator doesn’t have to be the sole or main cause.
What is permitting? Allowing something to happen Turning a blind eye Not taking reasonable care to ensure that the entry does not happen
Prosecutions under Fisheries Act Are an alternative to prosecuting under s.3 of the Water Pollution Act and there is no defence of reasonable care.
Defences Reasonable care - if Water Pollution Act prosecution. No such defence under Fisheries Act. For agriculture sector: compliance with a code of practice Common law (Act of God/didn’t cause or permit) Statutory defences (i)compliance with licence (ii) compliance with standards (iii) exception under Act Difference for Fisheries (Consolidation) Act 1959
Licences required Section 4 - for discharging trade or sewage effluents to waters Section 16 - trade or sewage effluents to sewers (to be replaced by Water Services Act) Exemptions S. 4 (i) marine discharges (ii) by regulations (septic tanks) (iii) discharges to or from sewers EPA licenses LA wwtps
Water Quality Management Plans WFD Reasons for Procedure for making Importance of Is the plan binding like a development plan? Plans on a water catchment basis for WFD are now in force.
Agricultural Pollution Byelaws Good Agricultural Practice Regulations Phosphates Regulations
Enforcement Section 12 – Notices requiring action Sections 10 – actions in any court Section 11- actions in HC for potential pollution Section 13 –measures necessary to prevent/clean up Section 20 – civil liability Anyone can enforce all of these except 12/13.
Civil Liability for water pollution %any person who has suffered injury,loss or damage to person or property may recover damages from: %1. the occupier of the premises from which the pollution emanated unless it was caused by: %act of God %by the act or omission of a third party over whose conduct the occupier had no control and which the occupier could not reasonably have foreseen and guarded against. 2. Any person whose act or omission constitutes in the opinion of the court, a contravention of any provision of the WPA
Personal responsibilities Directors and managers liable (even in local authorities!)