Presentation on theme: "Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs NEEDS: a lack of something required or desired.*Needs motivate us to act!
2 Abraham Maslow Education Background Born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, NY One of seven siblingsMarried to first cousinDied June 8, 1970City College of New YorkStudied LawUniversity of WisconsinBachelor of Arts Degree in Psychology- 1930Master of Arts Degree inPsychology – 1931PhD Psychology- 1934(newworldencyclopedia.org, 2008)
3 “What a man can be, he must be.” Abraham MaslowResearchFirst to study the Psychology of HealthHuman SexualityHumanistic Psychology“What a man can be, he must be.”
4 Theory Origin & Description 1941Influenced by Kurt Goldstein who introduced him to the idea of self-actualizationHis own close encounter with death had an impact on his outlook on life and self-actualizationMaslow’s humanistic psychology focused on the development of healthy people
5 Description of Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Maslow’s theory is based on the idea that some needs, physical as well as psychological, take precedence over others.The needs are placed in a pyramid with the most important making the base If the basic needs are not met, the base of the pyramid is not formed and the rest of the needs are not achieved.(Learning-Theories.com, 2008)
6 The fifth level, the actualization level, is a growth level. The first levels of needs are the deficiency needs, those that if not met cause a deficiency, or lack that motivates a person to strive to achieve the need.The fifth level, the actualization level, is a growth level.Few people ever reach the growth level and spend their lives going up and down the pyramid meeting the lower level needs.Maslow defined a Hierarchy of Human Needs that stated the lower needs must be met before an individual can strive to meet the higher needs.(Learning-Theories.com, 2008)
7 As an individual becomes more Self-Actualization Needs Problem-Solving, Art, Beauty, Freedom Personal Fulfillment, CreativitySocial Needs Friendship, Family Belonging, IdentityEsteem Needs Self Esteem, Confidence, Justice, Respect, RecognitionSafety NeedsSecurity of the body, Health and PropertyPhysiological NeedsFood, Water, SleepAs an individual becomes moreself-actualized, one becomes wiser and automatically knows what to do in a wide variety of situations
8 Theory Description Lights! Camera! Action! Maslow’s TheoryA hierarchy of important processesthat are critical for development and growthof the total person (McEwen & Wills, 2007).Lights! Camera! Action!YouTube Video on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
9 PHYSIOLOGICAL-necessary for life; unmet, these needs lead to death FoodWaterOxygenSleepProtection from extreme temperaturesEliminationSensory needsMotor needsSensory needs-hearing, seeing, feeling, tasting, and mental stimulationMotor needs-if muscles are not stimulated, they will atrophy
10 SAFETY/SECURITY The need to be free from anxiety and fear The need to be secure in the environmentThe need for order and routine
11 LOVE AND AFFECTION Social acceptance, friendship, to be loved Need to belong, to relate to othersSexuality-a person’s feelings/attitude toward their masculine/feminine natureSexuality-the ability to give and receive love and affection-reproductive capabilities
12 ESTEEMFeeling important and worthwhile – includes respect, approval, appreciationWe engage in activities that bring achievement, success, and recognitionWe gain self-confidence and begin to direct our actions toward becoming what we WANT to be
13 SELF-ACTUALIZATIONSelf-realization; obtaining our full potential; becoming confident, eager to express our beliefs, and willing to reach out to others to help them
14 To meet our human needs We usually learn what works by trial-and-error Direct methods v. Indirect methodsStress reactionsChallenges and responsibilities
15 DIRECT METHODS Hard work Setting realistic goals Cooperating with othersEvaluating effectively
16 INDIRECT METHODS Suppression Projection Denial Rationalization Compensation*Note: These are unhealthy when used too often, but sometimes allows us to cope!
17 When defense mechanisms are inadequate, stress reactions develop: Chronic complaining and demanding behaviorAgitation with manipulative behaviorRestlessnessSleeplessnessDepression-be alert for potential suicideWithdrawal
18 Application to Nursing Practice Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is easily applied to nursing practice.The theory focuses on human potential, “gives hope a chance”.The theory allows the nurse to highlight the person’s strengths instead of focusing on one’s deficits (McEwen & Wills, 2007).Basic needs such as air, food, drink and warmth , are the basic needs of human survival and health.Safety, be it with ambulation or in taking medication, is very important to nursing.
19 Social needs are met with visiting hours and through the nurse-patient (care-giver) relationship Esteem and self-actualization may or may not be met in the hospital setting.The theory provides the blueprint for prioritizing client care according to a hierarchy of needs (McEwen & Wills, 2007).
20 Personal Nursing Practice Keesha~“I utilize Maslow’s Hierarchy while caring for patients in the hospital setting. It’s imperative in this line of work to address our patient’s individual needs (all of which are listed n Maslow’s hierarchy). As nurses, our nursing care encompasses finding the inherent goodness in people. By assisting patients in meeting their needs, there’s a sense of achievement and satisfaction had by all. As we satisfy our physiological needs including food, shelter, water we can better address our safety and emotional needs. When we meet our esteem needs we are better communicators, listeners, educators, therefore satisfy our social needs. Self-actualization needs appear to be more complex for some patients and nurses, but with time are attainable.”
21 There are many criticisms to Maslow’s theory There is no explanation for those that put themselves in danger to help another.There are some cultures that put social needs above other basic needs.There is no explanation for the “starving artist”, the person who will give up food and drink in deference to their art.(NetNBA, ) There’s minimal evidence to suggest that Maslow’s needs are in a hierarchical orderWahba & Bridwell (1976) claim that Maslow’s definition of self-actualization is difficult to test scientifically and found little evidence for the ranking of Maslow’s needs or any existence of a definite hierarchyMaslow’s theory has been challenged by other theorists who hypothesize that there are only three levels of human needs