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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs

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Presentation on theme: "Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs"— Presentation transcript:

1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
NEEDS: a lack of something required or desired. *Needs motivate us to act!

2 Abraham Maslow Education Background Born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, NY
One of seven siblings Married to first cousin Died June 8, 1970 City College of New York Studied Law University of Wisconsin Bachelor of Arts Degree in Psychology- 1930 Master of Arts Degree in Psychology – 1931 PhD Psychology- 1934 (, 2008)

3 “What a man can be, he must be.”
Abraham Maslow Research First to study the Psychology of Health Human Sexuality Humanistic Psychology “What a man can be, he must be.”

4 Theory Origin & Description
1941 Influenced by Kurt Goldstein who introduced him to the idea of self-actualization His own close encounter with death had an impact on his outlook on life and self-actualization Maslow’s humanistic psychology focused on the development of healthy people

5 Description of Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s theory is based on the idea that some needs, physical as well as psychological, take precedence over others. The needs are placed in a pyramid with the most important making the base  If the basic needs are not met, the base of the pyramid is not formed and the rest of the needs are not achieved. (, 2008) 

6 The fifth level, the actualization level, is a growth level.
The first levels of needs are the deficiency needs, those that if not met cause a deficiency, or lack that motivates a person to strive to achieve the need. The fifth level, the actualization level, is a growth level. Few people ever reach the growth level and spend their lives going up and down the pyramid meeting the lower level needs. Maslow defined a Hierarchy of Human Needs that stated the lower needs must be met before an individual can strive to meet the higher needs. (, 2008) 

7 As an individual becomes more
Self-Actualization Needs Problem-Solving, Art, Beauty, Freedom Personal Fulfillment, Creativity Social Needs Friendship, Family Belonging, Identity Esteem Needs Self Esteem, Confidence, Justice, Respect, Recognition Safety Needs Security of the body, Health and Property Physiological Needs Food, Water, Sleep As an individual becomes more self-actualized, one becomes wiser and automatically knows what to do in a wide variety of situations

8 Theory Description Lights! Camera! Action!
Maslow’s Theory A hierarchy of important processes that are critical for development and growth of the total person (McEwen & Wills, 2007). Lights! Camera! Action! YouTube Video on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

9 PHYSIOLOGICAL-necessary for life; unmet, these needs lead to death
Food Water Oxygen Sleep Protection from extreme temperatures Elimination Sensory needs Motor needs Sensory needs-hearing, seeing, feeling, tasting, and mental stimulation Motor needs-if muscles are not stimulated, they will atrophy

10 SAFETY/SECURITY The need to be free from anxiety and fear
The need to be secure in the environment The need for order and routine

11 LOVE AND AFFECTION Social acceptance, friendship, to be loved
Need to belong, to relate to others Sexuality -a person’s feelings/attitude toward their masculine/feminine nature Sexuality -the ability to give and receive love and affection -reproductive capabilities

12 ESTEEM Feeling important and worthwhile – includes respect, approval, appreciation We engage in activities that bring achievement, success, and recognition We gain self-confidence and begin to direct our actions toward becoming what we WANT to be

13 SELF-ACTUALIZATION Self-realization; obtaining our full potential; becoming confident, eager to express our beliefs, and willing to reach out to others to help them

14 To meet our human needs We usually learn what works by trial-and-error
Direct methods v. Indirect methods Stress reactions Challenges and responsibilities

15 DIRECT METHODS Hard work Setting realistic goals
Cooperating with others Evaluating effectively

16 INDIRECT METHODS Suppression Projection Denial Rationalization
Compensation *Note: These are unhealthy when used too often, but sometimes allows us to cope!

17 When defense mechanisms are inadequate, stress reactions develop:
Chronic complaining and demanding behavior Agitation with manipulative behavior Restlessness Sleeplessness Depression-be alert for potential suicide Withdrawal

18 Application to Nursing Practice
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is easily applied to nursing practice. The theory focuses on human potential, “gives hope a chance”. The theory allows the nurse to highlight the person’s strengths instead of focusing on one’s deficits (McEwen & Wills, 2007). Basic needs such as air, food, drink and warmth , are the basic needs of human survival and health. Safety, be it with ambulation or in taking medication, is very important to nursing.

19 Social needs are met with visiting hours and through the nurse-patient (care-giver) relationship
Esteem and self-actualization may or may not be met in the hospital setting. The theory provides the blueprint for prioritizing client care according to a hierarchy of needs (McEwen & Wills, 2007).

20 Personal Nursing Practice
Keesha~ “I utilize Maslow’s Hierarchy while caring for patients in the hospital setting. It’s imperative in this line of work to address our patient’s individual needs (all of which are listed n Maslow’s hierarchy). As nurses, our nursing care encompasses finding the inherent goodness in people. By assisting patients in meeting their needs, there’s a sense of achievement and satisfaction had by all. As we satisfy our physiological needs including food, shelter, water we can better address our safety and emotional needs. When we meet our esteem needs we are better communicators, listeners, educators, therefore satisfy our social needs. Self-actualization needs appear to be more complex for some patients and nurses, but with time are attainable.”

21 There are many criticisms to Maslow’s theory
There is no explanation for those that put themselves in danger to help another. There are some cultures that put social needs above other basic needs. There is no explanation for the “starving artist”, the person who will give up food and drink in deference to their art. (NetNBA, )  There’s minimal evidence to suggest that Maslow’s needs are in a hierarchical order Wahba & Bridwell (1976) claim that Maslow’s definition of self-actualization is difficult to test scientifically and found little evidence for the ranking of Maslow’s needs or any existence of a definite hierarchy Maslow’s theory has been challenged by other theorists who hypothesize that there are only three levels of human needs

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