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Canadian Geography 1202 The Energy Resource

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1 Canadian Geography 1202 The Energy Resource
Why are these buildings lit up? What can be done to reduce energy costs in cities?


3 Canadians are energy addicts!
Why do we use so much energy? Canada is huge and people are spread out, we tend to travel long distances for everything. It is cold in the winter and often hot in the summer, many of us spend a fortune on heating and cooling our homes We love big, gas-guzzling cars. We also love to buy clothes, TVs, computers, and many other consumer goods that require energy to manufacture Many Canadians roar around on ATVs, go to super-cooled hockey arenas in the summer, and fly off to Florida in the winter Why do we use so much energy?

4 Global Energy Demand

5 The Global demand for energy is increasing
Global Energy Demand The Global demand for energy is increasing The world is becoming more dependant on energy for three reasons: 1. An expanding world population means more energy is needed. 2. As the standard of living in developing countries rises their need for energy increases with it. 3. Industrialized countries use the cheapest, not the most efficient, energy sources to improve their standard of living



8 Dubai


10 How Does Canada Obtain its Energy
Canada has five major sources of energy: Coal Natural Gas Oil Hydroelectricity Nuclear Energy


12 Coal Energy Not as widely used as it once was
The biggest power plants in Canada are run coal-fired, meaning run on coal Coke: A substance made from coal that is used in steel smelting. It is made by removing impurities from the coal. Canada exports high quality coal to Japan and China for their auto industry

13 Canada and Coal Canada has 24 producing coals mines, with ten mines in British Columbia, nine mines in Alberta, three in Saskatchewan and two in Nova Scotia. There are 6.6 billion tonnes of recoverable coal reserves in Canada, using current extraction methods Alberta is Canada’s largest producer of coal, and contains 70 % of the country’s coal reserves. There are coal-bearing areas under about 48 % of Alberta’s land area. In Alberta 74% of electricity is generated by coal. There are currently 25 new coal projects going through governmental regulatory processes. Over 42,000 people are directly and indirectly employed in coal related industry. 73% of coal produced in Canada was exported to Asia in 2010.

14 Alberta and Coal


16 How Do We Get Coal? We get coal in three ways:
Open-pit mining: the digging of a giant pit to extract a mineral deposit near the surface. 2. Strip mining: the type of mining used to remove ore along a deposit that is in horizontal layers. 3. Underground mining: miners follow shafts and tunnels and use explosives to get at deposits deep underground.

17 Most coal comes from Alberta
Coal mining is dangerous, especially underground mining where there are risks of poisonous gases and cave-ins Coal is a dirty fuel, it releases much more greenhouse gas than oil or natural gas does




21 Coal Cheap There is a large supply Easily mined Dirty
Emits more greenhouse gas than any other fuel source Non-Renewable

22 Oil Energy Oil is used in gasoline, cosmetics, tar, and almost all plastics Oil is found in Earth’s crust in structures known as traps Oil traps have two main parts: Non Porous/ Caprock: This is solid rock that neither Oil nor water can pass through 2. Porous rock/ Reservoir rock: Rock filled with tiny holes that water and oil can move in Oil accumulates at the top of traps due to its natural tendency to float on water. The oil will be forced up by the ground water until it meets the cap. There it will accumulate into a reserve 3.

23 Finding Oil Geologists use remote sensing to find rocks that might contain oil They look for structures that resemble oil traps Once they have an area they think may contain oil they drill a test well If they drill a dry well they will take a rock sample for study, and then move on If they strike oil they will set up a production facility and extract the oil Drilling for oil is a very expensive operation, and dry wells are common, however the benefits of finding a productive well outweighs many of the risks

24 Oil In Canada

25 Oil In Canada Oil Can be found near the East coast and North coasts of Canada Oil deposits in the north have not been developed yet Oil fields on the East coast include; Hibernia, Terra Nova, White Rose, and Hebron Alberta has Canada’s largest oil reserve. Its producing fields, and the tar sands make up an area larger than New Brunswick Saskatchewan also has a producing oil industry

26 Methods of Extracting Oil
The geography of the oil deposit greatly effects the method of extraction If a deposit is located on land or on water, in a place with a harsh climate, or in areas that pose environmental threats different methods will be used When drilling for oil on the ocean the depth of the water, as well as climate factors play a large role in selecting a drilling platform

27 Conventional Oil Rig For use on land only
Can be used in virtually any weather conditions, except extreme cold (Oils begin to freeze at around -18°C) These rigs are easily reusable

28 Submersible Drilling Platform
Operates in up to 20m They are attached to the ocean floor by legs They are floated into position then attached to sea floor Difficulty of use and restricted depths make these an outdated form of oil production

29 Jack Up Rigs These have extendable legs that attach to sea floor
They can operate at various depths up to 100m The legs rest on the sea floor It is floated into position This rig is easier to move, and has more range Can be moved out of storm paths.

30 Semi-Submersible Drilling Platform (Anchored)
This platform floats on pontoons It is held in position by multiple anchors They allow drilling in waters up to 200m They are dificult to move as they are anchored and are not used in dangerous location

31 Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO)
This ship moves itself into position Can be anchored to sea floor Produces, stores, and offloads oil Can be used at greater depths Can move out of the path of storms

32 Dynamically Positioned Semi Submersible
These rigs have their own thruster systems to keep them in position These rigs can drill at any depth These rigs are easily moved away from hazards They are highly reusable Expensive

33 Hibernia (GBS) Newfoundland’s most famous oil platform is the Hibernia GBS Hibernia was a unique design that was built to extract oil from an environment thought too harsh for oil production Designers had to make a structure that was capable of withstanding harsh winter storms, and icebergs They came up with a Gravity Based Structure Hibernia has a large concrete base that sits on the sea floor, and is designed to withstand the impact of an iceberg

34 Hibernia


36 Oil Efficient energy source Easy to transport and use
There is a ready supply Dirty Emits greenhouse gas Non-Renewable

37 The Tar Sands Case Study: The Disappearing River System Page 318
Do #’s 1, 2, 4.

38 Natural Gas: The Resource
Canada is the world’s third-largest producer of natural gas. Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon consisting primarily of methane, but it may also contain small amounts of ethane, propane, butane and pentanes.

39 Natural Gas Formation Natural gas was formed over millions of years as heat and pressure transformed decaying plant and animal matter buried in sedimentary rock layers. The gas produced is trapped under an impermeable layer of rock that keeps it from flowing to the surface.

40 Natural Gas History Natural gas has been a part of Canada’s energy mix since it was first discovered in 1859 in New Brunswick In 1883, natural gas was discovered in southeast Alberta. Canada’s first offshore discovery was made south of Sable Island, N.S., in 1967. Today about 30 per cent of Canada’s entire energy needs are met by natural gas.

41 Natural Gas: Location

42 Natural Gas: Location In the North: There are some reserves of natural gas in the North West Territories Western Canada: Alberta has a wealth of natural gas Atlantic Canada: Large natural gas reserves can be found off the coast of Atlantic Canada.

43 Natural Gas: Economy Government revenues: Jobs 317,000 jobs
$285 billion in taxes over the next 25 years $98 billion could be collected in royalties over 25 years Jobs 317,000 jobs The natural gas sector is expected to provide 317,000 jobs (direct, indirect and induced) across Canada by This is almost double the 172,000 natural gas jobs in 2010.


45 Future Markets

46 Natural Gas: Environment
Natural gas is the cleanest-burning hydrocarbon with a wide variety of uses in our homes, businesses, industry and communities. Natural gas operations require water in the well drilling and completions phase. This water come from a variety of sources and is often reused. The use of horizontal drilling reduces the impact of natural gas production on the environment


48 Natural Gas Efficient energy source Easy to transport and use
There is a ready supply Emits greenhouse gas Non-Renewable

49 Hydroelectricity Hydroelectricity: Electrical power generated by water turning a turbine Turbine: A revolving engine that changes the energy of a moving stream into mechanical energy, that is then transformed into electricity.

50 Hydroelectricity: Location
Hydroelectricity is dispersed all throughout Canada The smallest generating capacity can be found in the prairie provinces Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba

51 Hydroelectricity Generation
How it works: How Hydroelectricity is generated: Step 1: Building of a dam and creation of a reservoir Step 2: Water is allowed to flow through the dam Step 3: Water is forced through a turbine, turning it Step 4: The turbine turns a generator making electricity Step 5: The water exits the dam

52 Hydroelectricity: Economy
More than C$50 billion over the next 10 years More than 150,000 jobs Potential available in all provinces and territories

53 Nuclear Energy: The Resource
Nuclear power produces no smog, greenhouse gases, or any other forms of air pollution. The fuel that is used for nuclear power—uranium—is abundant and cheap Canada has 19 operating power reactors producing approximately 17% of Canadian electricity. Canada’s nuclear industry is among the most highly monitored and regulated industries in the world

54 Nuclear Energy : Global Connection
Canadian nuclear technology was among the first and most innovative to emerge globally. Currently, there are 47 CANDU (or CANDU-derivative) reactors worldwide, 60% of which are operating outside of Canada. Canada is the world’s leading provider of medical isotopes, and the second-leading producer of uranium.

55 Nuclear Energy: Location
Most of Canada’ nuclear reactors are found in Southern Canada in the great lakes region of Ontario In this location they can provide energy to a large market, both residential and industrial In this location they are able to export energy to the United States as well

56 Nuclear Energy: Generation
Construction costs of nuclear plants are much higher than for other power plants. Fuel rods contain radioactive radium, which is heated to create the steam that turns the turbines in the reactors The water that is used does not come into contact with any radioactive material and can be safely put back into the environment.


58 Nuclear Energy: The Environment
Reactors can cause health and environmental risks Radioactive rods must be stored in pools of water at the nuclear power plants. The fuel rods can- not be disposed. They can only be stored. This creates the public concern about a nuclear accident.

59 Nuclear Energy: The Economy
Nuclear technology is a major and integral part of Canadian manufacturing and innovation, contributing well over $5B to the Canadian economy through many important channels Canada’s nuclear industry directly employs over 30,000 Canadians – a number that is poised to increase to 42,000 by 2017 if current investment plans are realized.


61 Canadian Energy Resource and The World
Canada produces surplus energy We make more than we can use The extra energy can be sold to other countries. The United States is the biggest buyer of Canadian energy Canada sells oil, natural gas, and hydroelectric power to the United States By exporting energy Canada makes money If the United States stops buying Canadian energy the economy will suffer

62 Energy Resource and Politics
Politics: refers to which groups (e.g., government) have the power and authority to make decisions to control activities, land, and resources. Politics and energy concerns who has the power to control the Canadian energy resource In Canada the provinces have control over their own resources. This means that one province having natural resources does not significantly effect the others New Brunswick will not get money from Alberta or Newfoundland oil

63 Energy Resource and Politics
As provinces become wealthier from their natural resources they gain more political power. This means that as Alberta becomes more wealthy due to the resources found there the power of its people grows We are starting to see a shift in power in Canada from the Great Lakes region to the western provinces. Energy is changing the politics of Canada.

64 Energy and Climate Change
Earth is gradually heating up, but the reasons for this change are debated Many people believe that the burning of fossil fuels to supply our energy needs is causing global warming. Global warming: refers to the gradually increasing average temperature of the Earth as a whole. Others believe that global warming is the result of natural processes.

65 Energy and Climate Change
Climate change includes global warming, but it also includes cooling in some parts of the world and changes in precipitation amounts and wind intensity.

66 This graph shows the difference from the average seasonal temperature over the past 20 years
You can see that in general there is an average increase from the seasonal average

67 What causes Global Warming???
Global warming is influenced by the activities that people do. When humans release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere there are consequences Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, and greenhouse gases absorb heat Increasing greenhouse gases cause the temperature to rise

68 Understanding the Human Connection to Global Warming
To understand how humans contribute to global warming we need to understand the carbon-oxygen cycle Carbon-oxygen cycle is the movement of carbon and oxygen through the Earth’s systems. Carbon moves around the planet in different ways stored in oceans, forests, soil, rocks, and underground deposits of fossil fuels It is released into the atmosphere by breathing, burning materials containing it or materials decaying Plants turn the carbon dioxide into oxygen through photo synthesis

69 Understanding the Human Connection to Global Warming
Humans contribute to global warming by producing more carbon dioxide than the natural systems can sustain. Also they destroy the systems ability to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen by clearing forests


71 The Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect: the absorption of heat energy by greenhouse gases and reradiation into the atmosphere Heat that enters the atmosphere is naturally reradiated back into space However as humans produce greenhouse gasses more of this energy is being absorbed in the atmosphere This energy that is captured is reradiated back to the Earths surface causing an increase in temperature Without the greenhouse effect earth would not keep any heat. The temperature variation on earth would not support life. It is a natural phenomena, however human interference is causing the system to store too much heat

72 Global Warming Global Warming: a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth due to increasing levels of green- house gases in the atmosphere What we know is that the temperature on Earth is rising. We know that the change seems to be related to increases in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Scientists predict that warmer global temperatures will affect our quality of life and cause many problems

73 Global Warming: Consequences
The increase in global temperatures is having an effect on both human and natural systems Trees of the boreal forest are creeping north into land previously occupied by tundra conditions 2. Caribou have to mover further north to avoid competition from species like moose 3. Animals that rely on sea ice for life, polar bears, seals are having to deal with reduced habitats 4. People in southern Canada are having to deal with more severe and frequent storms 5. Melting permafrost is causing many houses in the north to need repair

74 7. As the Prairies become too dry for farming and ranching, they could become more urban.
8. More health care workers will be needed as people are affected by higher temperatures and more tropical diseases. 9. If it becomes drier in the summer, forest fires may become more wide- spread and insect pests such as the pine beetle could spread. 10. Engineers and transportation workers will be needed to fix transportation systems damaged by flooding. 11. Melting permafrost would limit transportation in much of the North. 12. Structures built on the permafrost would sink in the mud.


76 Predictions for 2050

77 Alternative Energy Sources
Solar Power Passive Solar Power: the Sun’s energy is converted into heat when sunlight enters a building through windows and is absorbed into the walls, floor, and furniture Having south facing windows allows for the most sun to get in Plant deciduous trees so that they shade the house in summer but allow light to enter in winter Active solar power: The use of solar panels to heat water that runs through tubes on the roof of a building, or to charge a battery

78 Wind Power Todays wind turbines are powerful and need now fuel The hard part is finding areas where winds are strong enough to blow turbines but not damage them Geothermal Power This uses heat energy from deep in the earth to create electricity The difficulty with this type of energy is that locations where it can work are hard to find

79 Biogas power: Ethanol Power:
Biogas: the mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, produced from the decay of plant matter, that is used as a fuel. Technologies are developing in which garbage is put in digesters that speed up the rotting process to produce biogas One problem with recycling garbage to produce biogas is that toxic fumes result when people throw hazardous wastes into the trash. Ethanol Power: Ethanol: a form of alcohol made from different kinds of plant matter. Over 20% of all North American corn is used for ethanol production Because of the demand for corn to make ethanol, the price of corn is sharply rising.

80 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Tidal Power
These fuel cells work a lot like a battery, in that they have positive and negative sides that produce electricity They rely on a chemical reaction between the hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity The only byproduct that comes out of the system is water The difficulty with the hydrogen fuel cell is that it is explosive and technologies to make transporting hydrogen safer need to be developed Tidal Power In areas where the tide is extreme dams can be set up to catch the water at high tide As the water runs back out at low tide it is forced to turn turbines generating electricity

81 Making A Difference To make a difference in climate change everyone needs to work together! In our everyday experience, if something has never happened before, we are generally safe in assuming it is not going to happen in the future, but the exceptions can kill you and climate change is one of those exceptions. Al Gore Change Must Be Made By: Individuals, Industries, Communities, And Countries.

82 1. Walk or Ride 2. Turn it Off 3.Turn it Down
Things You Can Do 1. Walk or Ride 2. Turn it Off 3.Turn it Down

83 Things Industries Can Do!
1. Reduce Emissions of GHG’s 2. Find more energy efficient ways to produce products 3. Select the best energy sources

84 3. Energy Saving Programs
What Communities Can Do! 1. Car Pool 2. Walk, or Ride 3. Energy Saving Programs

85 1. Participate in International Programs to reduce GHG’s
Things Countries Can Do 1. Participate in International Programs to reduce GHG’s 2. Invest in energy efficient programs 3. Enforce GHG emission regulations on industry

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