3 Canadians are energy addicts! Why do we use so much energy?Canada is huge and people are spread out, we tend to travel long distances for everything.It is cold in the winter and often hot in the summer, many of us spend a fortune on heating and cooling our homesWe love big, gas-guzzling cars.We also love to buy clothes, TVs, computers, and many other consumer goods that require energy to manufactureMany Canadians roar around on ATVs, go to super-cooled hockey arenas in the summer, and fly off to Florida in the winterWhy do we use so much energy?
5 The Global demand for energy is increasing Global Energy DemandThe Global demand for energy is increasingThe world is becoming more dependant on energy for three reasons:1. An expanding world population means more energy is needed.2. As the standard of living in developing countries risestheir need for energy increases with it.3. Industrialized countries use the cheapest, not the mostefficient, energy sources to improve their standard of living
12 Coal Energy Not as widely used as it once was The biggest power plants in Canada are run coal-fired, meaning run on coalCoke: A substance made from coal that is used in steelsmelting. It is made by removing impurities from the coal.Canada exports high quality coal to Japan and China for their auto industry
13 Canada and CoalCanada has 24 producing coals mines, with ten mines in British Columbia, nine mines in Alberta, three in Saskatchewan and two in Nova Scotia.There are 6.6 billion tonnes of recoverable coal reserves in Canada, using current extraction methodsAlberta is Canada’s largest producer of coal, and contains 70 % of the country’s coal reserves.There are coal-bearing areas under about 48 % of Alberta’s land area.In Alberta 74% of electricity is generated by coal.There are currently 25 new coal projects going through governmental regulatory processes.Over 42,000 people are directly and indirectly employed in coal related industry.73% of coal produced in Canada was exported to Asia in 2010.
16 How Do We Get Coal? We get coal in three ways: Open-pit mining: the digging of a giant pit to extract a mineral deposit near the surface.2. Strip mining: the type of mining used to remove ore along a deposit that is in horizontal layers.3. Underground mining: miners follow shafts and tunnels and use explosives to get at deposits deep underground.
17 Most coal comes from Alberta Coal mining is dangerous, especially underground mining wherethere are risks of poisonous gases and cave-insCoal is a dirty fuel, it releases much more greenhouse gas than oil ornatural gas does
21 Coal Cheap There is a large supply Easily mined Dirty Emits more greenhouse gas than any other fuel sourceNon-Renewable
22 Oil EnergyOil is used in gasoline, cosmetics, tar, and almost all plasticsOil is found in Earth’s crust in structures known astrapsOil traps have two main parts:Non Porous/ Caprock: This is solid rock that neitherOil nor water can pass through2. Porous rock/ Reservoir rock: Rock filled with tiny holes that water and oil can move inOil accumulates at the top of traps due to its natural tendency to float on water.The oil will be forced up by the ground water until it meets the cap. There it willaccumulate into a reserve3.
23 Finding OilGeologists use remote sensing to find rocks that might contain oilThey look for structures that resemble oil trapsOnce they have an area they think may contain oil they drill a test wellIf they drill a dry well they will take a rock sample for study, and then move onIf they strike oil they will set up a production facility and extract the oilDrilling for oil is a very expensive operation, and dry wells arecommon, however the benefits of finding a productive well outweighs many ofthe risks
25 Oil In CanadaOil Can be found near the East coast and North coasts of CanadaOil deposits in the north have not been developed yetOil fields on the East coast include; Hibernia, Terra Nova, White Rose, and HebronAlberta has Canada’s largest oil reserve. Its producing fields, and the tar sands make up an area larger than New BrunswickSaskatchewan also has a producing oil industry
26 Methods of Extracting Oil The geography of the oil deposit greatly effects the method of extractionIf a deposit is located on land or on water, in a place with a harsh climate, or in areas that pose environmental threats different methods will be usedWhen drilling for oil on the ocean the depth of the water, as wellas climate factors play a large role in selecting a drilling platform
27 Conventional Oil Rig For use on land only Can be used in virtually any weather conditions, except extreme cold (Oils begin to freeze at around -18°C)These rigs are easily reusable
28 Submersible Drilling Platform Operates in up to 20mThey are attached to the ocean floor by legsThey are floated into position then attached to seafloorDifficulty of use and restricted depths make thesean outdated form of oil production
29 Jack Up Rigs These have extendable legs that attach to sea floor They can operate at various depths up to 100mThe legs rest on the sea floorIt is floated into positionThis rig is easier to move, and has more rangeCan be moved out of storm paths.
30 Semi-Submersible Drilling Platform (Anchored) This platform floats on pontoonsIt is held in position by multiple anchorsThey allow drilling in waters up to 200mThey are dificult to move as they are anchored and are not used in dangerous location
31 Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) This ship moves itself into positionCan be anchored to sea floorProduces, stores, and offloads oilCan be used at greater depthsCan move out of the path of storms
32 Dynamically Positioned Semi Submersible These rigs have their own thruster systems to keepthem in positionThese rigs can drill at any depthThese rigs are easily moved away from hazardsThey are highly reusableExpensive
33 Hibernia (GBS)Newfoundland’s most famous oil platform is the Hibernia GBSHibernia was a unique design that was built to extract oil from an environment thoughttoo harsh for oil productionDesigners had to make a structure that was capable of withstanding harshwinter storms, and icebergsThey came up with a Gravity Based StructureHibernia has a large concrete base that sits on the sea floor, and is designed to withstand the impact of an iceberg
36 Oil Efficient energy source Easy to transport and use There is a ready supplyDirtyEmits greenhouse gasNon-Renewable
37 The Tar Sands Case Study: The Disappearing River System Page 318 Do #’s 1, 2, 4.
38 Natural Gas: The Resource Canada is the world’s third-largest producer of natural gas.Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon consisting primarily of methane, but it may also contain small amounts of ethane, propane, butane and pentanes.
39 Natural Gas FormationNatural gas was formed over millions of years as heat and pressure transformed decaying plant and animal matter buried in sedimentary rock layers.The gas produced is trapped under an impermeable layer of rock that keeps it from flowing to the surface.
40 Natural Gas HistoryNatural gas has been a part of Canada’s energy mix since it was first discovered in 1859 in New BrunswickIn 1883, natural gas was discovered in southeast Alberta.Canada’s first offshore discovery was made south of Sable Island, N.S., in 1967.Today about 30 per cent of Canada’s entire energy needs are met by natural gas.
42 Natural Gas: LocationIn the North: There are some reserves of natural gas in the North West TerritoriesWestern Canada: Alberta has a wealth of natural gasAtlantic Canada: Large natural gas reserves can be found off the coast of Atlantic Canada.
43 Natural Gas: Economy Government revenues: Jobs 317,000 jobs $285 billion in taxes over the next 25 years$98 billion could be collected in royalties over 25 yearsJobs317,000 jobsThe natural gas sector is expected to provide 317,000 jobs (direct, indirect and induced) across Canada by This is almost double the 172,000 natural gas jobs in 2010.
46 Natural Gas: Environment Natural gas is the cleanest-burning hydrocarbon with a wide variety of uses in our homes, businesses, industry and communities.Natural gas operations require water in the well drilling and completions phase. This water come from a variety of sources and is often reused.The use of horizontal drilling reduces the impact of natural gas production on the environment
48 Natural Gas Efficient energy source Easy to transport and use There is a ready supplyEmits greenhouse gasNon-Renewable
49 HydroelectricityHydroelectricity: Electrical power generated by water turning a turbineTurbine: A revolving engine that changes the energy of a moving stream into mechanical energy, that is then transformed into electricity.
50 Hydroelectricity: Location Hydroelectricity is dispersed all throughout CanadaThe smallest generating capacity can be found in the prairie provinces Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba
51 Hydroelectricity Generation How it works:How Hydroelectricity is generated:Step 1: Building of a dam and creation of a reservoirStep 2: Water is allowed to flow through the damStep 3: Water is forced through a turbine, turning itStep 4: The turbine turns a generator making electricityStep 5: The water exits the dam
52 Hydroelectricity: Economy More than C$50 billion over the next 10 yearsMore than 150,000 jobsPotential available in all provinces and territories
53 Nuclear Energy: The Resource Nuclear power produces no smog, greenhouse gases, or any other forms of air pollution.The fuel that is used for nuclear power—uranium—is abundant and cheapCanada has 19 operating power reactors producing approximately 17% of Canadian electricity.Canada’s nuclear industry is among the most highly monitored and regulated industries in the world
54 Nuclear Energy : Global Connection Canadian nuclear technology was among the first and most innovative to emerge globally.Currently, there are 47 CANDU (or CANDU-derivative) reactors worldwide, 60% of which are operating outside of Canada.Canada is the world’s leading provider of medical isotopes, and the second-leading producer of uranium.
55 Nuclear Energy: Location Most of Canada’ nuclear reactors are found in Southern Canada in the great lakes region of OntarioIn this location they can provide energy to a large market, both residential and industrialIn this location they are able to export energy to the United States as well
56 Nuclear Energy: Generation Construction costs of nuclear plants are much higher than for other power plants.Fuel rods contain radioactive radium, which is heated to create the steam that turns the turbines in the reactorsThe water that is used does not come into contact with any radioactive material and can be safely put back into the environment.
58 Nuclear Energy: The Environment Reactors can cause health and environmental risksRadioactive rods must be stored in pools of water at the nuclear power plants.The fuel rods can- not be disposed. They can only be stored.This creates the public concern about a nuclear accident.
59 Nuclear Energy: The Economy Nuclear technology is a major and integral part of Canadian manufacturing and innovation, contributing well over $5B to the Canadian economy through many important channelsCanada’s nuclear industry directly employs over 30,000 Canadians – a number that is poised to increase to 42,000 by 2017 if current investment plans are realized.
61 Canadian Energy Resource and The World Canada produces surplus energyWe make more than we can useThe extra energy can be sold to other countries.The United States is the biggest buyer of Canadian energyCanada sells oil, natural gas, and hydroelectric power to the United StatesBy exporting energy Canada makes moneyIf the United States stops buying Canadian energy the economy will suffer
62 Energy Resource and Politics Politics: refers to which groups (e.g., government) have the power and authority to make decisions to control activities, land, and resources.Politics and energy concerns who has the power to control the Canadian energy resourceIn Canada the provinces have control over their own resources.This means that one province having natural resources does not significantly effect the othersNew Brunswick will not get money from Alberta or Newfoundland oil
63 Energy Resource and Politics As provinces become wealthier from their natural resources they gain more political power.This means that as Alberta becomes more wealthy due to the resources found there the power of its people growsWe are starting to see a shift in power in Canada from the Great Lakes region to the western provinces.Energy is changing the politics of Canada.
64 Energy and Climate Change Earth is gradually heating up, but the reasons for this change are debatedMany people believe that the burning of fossil fuels to supply our energy needs is causing global warming.Global warming: refers to the gradually increasing average temperature of the Earth as a whole.Others believe that global warming is the result of natural processes.
65 Energy and Climate Change Climate change includes global warming, but it also includes cooling in some parts of the world and changes in precipitation amounts and wind intensity.
66 This graph shows the difference from the average seasonal temperature over the past 20 years You can see that in general there is an average increase from the seasonal average
67 What causes Global Warming??? Global warming is influenced by the activities that people do.When humans release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere there are consequencesCarbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, and greenhouse gases absorb heatIncreasing greenhouse gases cause the temperature to rise
68 Understanding the Human Connection to Global Warming To understand how humans contribute to global warming we need to understand the carbon-oxygen cycleCarbon-oxygen cycle is the movement of carbon and oxygen through the Earth’s systems.Carbon moves around the planet in different waysstored in oceans, forests, soil, rocks, and underground deposits of fossil fuelsIt is released into the atmosphere by breathing, burning materials containing it or materials decayingPlants turn the carbon dioxide into oxygen through photo synthesis
69 Understanding the Human Connection to Global Warming Humans contribute to global warming by producing more carbon dioxide than the natural systems can sustain.Also they destroy the systems ability to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen by clearing forests
71 The Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse Effect: the absorption of heat energy by greenhouse gases andreradiation into the atmosphereHeat that enters the atmosphere is naturally reradiated back into spaceHowever as humans produce greenhouse gasses more of this energy is being absorbed in the atmosphereThis energy that is captured is reradiated back to theEarths surface causing an increase in temperatureWithout the greenhouse effect earth would not keepany heat. The temperature variation on earth wouldnot support life. It is a natural phenomena, howeverhuman interference is causing the system to storetoo much heat
72 Global WarmingGlobal Warming: a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth due to increasing levels of green- house gases in the atmosphereWhat we know is that the temperature on Earth is rising.We know that the change seems to be related to increases in greenhouse gases inthe atmosphereScientists predict that warmer globaltemperatures will affect our quality oflife and cause many problems
73 Global Warming: Consequences The increase in global temperatures is having an effect on both humanand natural systemsTrees of the boreal forest are creeping north into land previously occupied by tundra conditions2. Caribou have to mover further north to avoid competition from species like moose3. Animals that rely on sea ice for life, polarbears, seals are having to deal with reduced habitats4. People in southern Canada are having todeal with more severe and frequent storms5. Melting permafrost is causing manyhouses in the north to need repair
74 7. As the Prairies become too dry for farming and ranching, they could become more urban. 8. More health care workers will be needed as people are affected by higher temperatures and more tropical diseases.9. If it becomes drier in the summer, forest fires may become more wide- spread and insect pests such as the pine beetle could spread.10. Engineers and transportation workers will be needed to fix transportation systems damaged by flooding.11. Melting permafrost would limit transportation in much of the North.12. Structures built on the permafrost would sink in the mud.
77 Alternative Energy Sources Solar PowerPassive Solar Power: the Sun’s energy is converted into heat when sunlightenters a building through windows and is absorbed into the walls, floor,and furnitureHaving south facing windows allows for the most sun to get inPlant deciduous trees so that they shade the house in summer but allowlight to enter in winterActive solar power: The use of solar panels to heat water that runs through tubes on the roof of a building, or to charge a battery
78 Wind PowerTodays wind turbines are powerful and need now fuelThe hard part is finding areas where winds are strong enough to blow turbinesbut not damage themGeothermal PowerThis uses heat energy from deep in the earth to create electricityThe difficulty with this type of energy is that locations where it can workare hard to find
79 Biogas power: Ethanol Power: Biogas: the mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, produced from the decay of plant matter, that is used as a fuel.Technologies are developing in which garbage is put in digesters that speed up therotting process to produce biogasOne problem with recycling garbage to produce biogas is that toxic fumes result when people throw hazardous wastes into the trash.Ethanol Power:Ethanol: a form of alcohol made from different kinds of plant matter.Over 20% of all North American corn is used for ethanol productionBecause of the demand for corn to make ethanol, the price of corn is sharply rising.
80 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Tidal Power These fuel cells work a lot like a battery, in that they have positive and negativesides that produce electricityThey rely on a chemical reaction between the hydrogen and oxygen to produceelectricityThe only byproduct that comes out of the system is waterThe difficulty with the hydrogen fuel cell is that it is explosive and technologiesto make transporting hydrogen safer need to be developedTidal PowerIn areas where the tide is extreme dams can be set up to catch the water at hightideAs the water runs back out at low tide it is forced to turn turbines generatingelectricity
81 Making A DifferenceTo make a difference in climate change everyone needs to work together!In our everyday experience,if something has never happened before, we are generally safe in assuming it is not going to happen in the future, but the exceptions can kill you and climate change is one of those exceptions. Al GoreChange Must Be Made By:Individuals,Industries,Communities,And Countries.
82 1. Walk or Ride 2. Turn it Off 3.Turn it Down Things You Can Do1. Walk or Ride2. Turn it Off3.Turn it Down
83 Things Industries Can Do! 1. Reduce Emissions of GHG’s2. Find more energy efficient ways to produce products3. Select the best energy sources
84 3. Energy Saving Programs What Communities Can Do!1. Car Pool2. Walk, or Ride3. Energy Saving Programs
85 1. Participate in International Programs to reduce GHG’s Things Countries Can Do1. Participate in International Programs to reduce GHG’s2. Invest in energy efficient programs3. Enforce GHG emission regulations on industry