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Pathology, & Treatments.  Lymphadenitis  Lymphadenopathy  Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy  Lymphangiogram.

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Presentation on theme: "Pathology, & Treatments.  Lymphadenitis  Lymphadenopathy  Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy  Lymphangiogram."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pathology, & Treatments

2  Lymphadenitis  Lymphadenopathy  Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy  Lymphangiogram

3  Lymphangioma – benign tumor of abnormal lymphatic vessels. Antiangiogenesis is a form of treament that will cuts off blood supply to the tumor.  Lymphedema ◦ Primary – hereditary ◦ Secondary – caused by identifiable factors  Splenomegaly?  Splenorrhagia?

4  Allergic reactions ◦ Allergy – aka hypersensitivity, overreaction of the body to a particular antigen ◦ Allergen is an antigen that is capable of causing an allergic response ◦ Cellular response aka localized or delayed response ◦ Systemic reaction ◦ Antihistamine – works to block allergic reactions ◦ Scratch test  Diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesome allergens like tree pollen and ragweed.

5  Autoimmune disorder – condition in which the immune system misreads normal antigens and creates antibodies and directs T cells against the body’s own tissues. Many appears to be genetic.  Immunodeficiency – when one or more parts of the immune system are deficient or missing

6  Immunodeficiency ◦ Congenital ◦ HIV  AIDS-late stage of the HIV infection  ELISA ◦ Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ◦ Blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies ◦ May produce a false-positive result  Western blot test ◦ Performed to confirm the diagnosis after a positive ELISA

7  Immunotherapy – treatment of disease either by enhancing or repressing the immune response  Antibody therapy ◦ Synthetic immunoglobulins – immune serum. Used as a post exposure preventive measure against certain viruses including rabies and some types of hepatitis ◦ Synthetic interferon – used in the treatment of MS and some CAs ◦ Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs)  Produced in the lab. Used in research, medical tests, and the treatment of some CAs

8  Immunosuppresion ◦ Immunosuppressant  Drug that prevents or reduces the body’s normal reactions to invasion by disease or by foreign tissues. Used to prevent the rejection of donor tissue or to depress autoimmune disorders ◦ Corticosteroid ◦ Cytotoxic drug ◦ Antineoplastic

9  Antibiotics- useless on viruses ◦ Bactericide – kills the bacteria, ◦ Bacteriostatic – inhibits, or slows down, the growth of bacteria  antivirals

10  Terms related to tumors ◦ Neoplasms ◦ Angiogenesis ◦ Benign – not recurring, favorable chance of recovery  For example – a myoma ◦ Malignant  Carcinoma in situ (CIS) describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues.  Invasive malignance  Metastasize?  Metastasis?

11  Staging – process of classifying tumors with respect to how far the disease has progressed, the potential for its responding to therapy, and the patient’s prognosis  Breast cancer ◦ Several types ◦ Is possible in males

12  Carcinomas – malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue ◦ Adenocarcinoma - any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue  Sarcomas – malignant tumor of connective tissues ◦ Hard-tissue ◦ Soft-tissue ◦ Kaposi’s is an opportunistic infection frequently associated with HIV.  Lymphomas – malignancies that develop in the lymphatic tissue ◦ Hodgkin’s ◦ Non-Hodgkin’s  Blastomas

13  Surgery  Chemo  Radiation ◦ Brachytherapy – the use of radioactive material in contact with, or implanted into, the tissues to be treated ◦ Teletherapy – radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body. With three-dimensional computer imaging, it is possible to aim doses more precisely

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