Lymphangioma – benign tumor of abnormal lymphatic vessels. Antiangiogenesis is a form of treament that will cuts off blood supply to the tumor. Lymphedema ◦ Primary – hereditary ◦ Secondary – caused by identifiable factors Splenomegaly? Splenorrhagia?
Allergic reactions ◦ Allergy – aka hypersensitivity, overreaction of the body to a particular antigen ◦ Allergen is an antigen that is capable of causing an allergic response ◦ Cellular response aka localized or delayed response ◦ Systemic reaction ◦ Antihistamine – works to block allergic reactions ◦ Scratch test Diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesome allergens like tree pollen and ragweed.
Autoimmune disorder – condition in which the immune system misreads normal antigens and creates antibodies and directs T cells against the body’s own tissues. Many appears to be genetic. Immunodeficiency – when one or more parts of the immune system are deficient or missing
Immunodeficiency ◦ Congenital ◦ HIV AIDS-late stage of the HIV infection ELISA ◦ Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ◦ Blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies ◦ May produce a false-positive result Western blot test ◦ Performed to confirm the diagnosis after a positive ELISA
Immunotherapy – treatment of disease either by enhancing or repressing the immune response Antibody therapy ◦ Synthetic immunoglobulins – immune serum. Used as a post exposure preventive measure against certain viruses including rabies and some types of hepatitis ◦ Synthetic interferon – used in the treatment of MS and some CAs ◦ Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) Produced in the lab. Used in research, medical tests, and the treatment of some CAs
Immunosuppresion ◦ Immunosuppressant Drug that prevents or reduces the body’s normal reactions to invasion by disease or by foreign tissues. Used to prevent the rejection of donor tissue or to depress autoimmune disorders ◦ Corticosteroid ◦ Cytotoxic drug ◦ Antineoplastic
Antibiotics- useless on viruses ◦ Bactericide – kills the bacteria, ◦ Bacteriostatic – inhibits, or slows down, the growth of bacteria antivirals
Terms related to tumors ◦ Neoplasms ◦ Angiogenesis ◦ Benign – not recurring, favorable chance of recovery For example – a myoma ◦ Malignant Carcinoma in situ (CIS) describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues. Invasive malignance Metastasize? Metastasis?
Staging – process of classifying tumors with respect to how far the disease has progressed, the potential for its responding to therapy, and the patient’s prognosis Breast cancer ◦ Several types ◦ Is possible in males
Carcinomas – malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue ◦ Adenocarcinoma - any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue Sarcomas – malignant tumor of connective tissues ◦ Hard-tissue ◦ Soft-tissue ◦ Kaposi’s is an opportunistic infection frequently associated with HIV. Lymphomas – malignancies that develop in the lymphatic tissue ◦ Hodgkin’s ◦ Non-Hodgkin’s Blastomas
Surgery Chemo Radiation ◦ Brachytherapy – the use of radioactive material in contact with, or implanted into, the tissues to be treated ◦ Teletherapy – radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body. With three-dimensional computer imaging, it is possible to aim doses more precisely