Presentation on theme: "Do Now Review: What factors led many people and societies to embrace Islam? What empires were weak? How did they treat people of other faiths? How."— Presentation transcript:
Do Now Review: What factors led many people and societies to embrace Islam? What empires were weak? How did they treat people of other faiths? How did they feel about knowledge? What were the people’s other options for rulers? Were they popular?
Muslim Expansion http://www.morainevalley.edu/ctl/MiddleEast/images/Map_Early%20Islamic%20Expansion.jpg
Extra Credit Opportunity Final one for the six weeks. Write a 2 page minimum review of a current conflict involving the Sunni- Shia split. Must use at least 2 resources (MLA citation). Worth 15 points. (Due on Wednesday)
The Rightly Guided Caliphs After Muhammad, 1 st Arab Empire begins with the Rightly Guided Caliphs Caliph = successor to prophet 4 Rightly Guided Caliphs – all serve for life and rule from Medina Spread Islam to India, Egypt, North Africa, Syria and Palestine.
The Umayyad Caliphs Replace Rightly Guided Caliphs. Move capital from Medina to Damascus Make caliphs hereditary Make Arabic official language of empire Created postal routes, mosques, 1 st Arabic money, and encouraged the arts. http://www.uah.edu/msa/pics/baitr ahm.jpg
Europe Holds off Islam Moors – Muslim Arabs from N. Africa intermarried with local Berbers. Moors conquer Spain in AD 710. Try to take over France. Battle of Tours AD 732 – Franks (the French), led by Charles the Hammer Martel, defeat Muslim forces and stop Islamic expansion. (Yes, the French won a battle!)
The Battle of Tours http://www.tfdutch.com/tours.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/C arlosmartelempoitiers.JPEG/300px- Carlosmartelempoitiers.JPEG http://pages.infinit. net/pascars/graal/ Charles1.JPG Charles “The Hammer” Martel
The Umayyads v. Abbasids AD 750 – War breaks out between the groups. Abbasids take control 1 st Hundred years in power known as Golden Age. Move capital to Baghdad Arabic remains official language.
More About the Golden Age Abbasids worked to make Baghdad major trading center. Leads to new ideas from India like number system – Arabic numerals Slavery always present, but NOT based on race. Persians eventually take over for Abbasids.
Collapse of the Empire Empire falls due to divisions within the religion. Disagreed on who should rule Muslims Shi’ites believed caliph could only come from descendant of Muhammad Sunni followed any legitimate caliph Division still exists today
Reflection How do you think the split of Islam will impact Muslims today?
Contributions of Islam Mosaics Concept of Zero – Arabic Numerals Arabic alphabet Universities Studied connection of geography and climate Algebra and medicine Architecture – Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem