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NEX and DEX: Theory and Reality

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1 NEX and DEX: Theory and Reality
RBEC Environment and Energy Practice Workshop: GEF Training and Kyoto Implementation Mechanisms 6-9 October 2004 Almaty, Kazakhstan Zharas Takenov, UNDP Kyrgyzstan

2 UNDP Project Execution:
Agency Execution NGO Execution National Execution (NEX) Direct Execution (DEX)

3 Agency Execution List of eligible Agencies:
*FAO, ILO, DESA, UNESCO, UNIDO * Other UN Specific Organizations (e.g. WHO,WMO, IAEA) * Regional Economic Commissions * UNOPS, Multilateral Banks (WB, Regional Banks etc.) Recommended, when: * activities require unique technical sector experience, specific management capacity or access to international networks *Govt lacks the required management or substantive capacity: or *the Parties prefer agency execution for other reasons

4 NGO Execution Can be National or International NGO Recommended when:
* project involves close cooperation with local stakeholders at the grassroots/community level; * NGOs under consideration have a comparative advantage in the areas the project targeting (experience, expertise or relations to the targeted beneficiaries); * Project calls for a lager number of extensive stakeholders consultations and participation

5 NEX Decision by Res. Rep (as AE and NGO) Considered as a norm
Eligible institutions: * ministry or department within a ministry; * a semi-autonomous Covt institutions such as central bank, university, regional or local authority or municipality; Mechanisms for coordination to be described in prodoc, e.g. establishment of PMC Designated institutions may contract other entities to undertake specific tasks as implementing agencies or subcontractors of the project.

6 EXPECTATIONS Better integration with national programs
Strengthening local capacity Improved ownership and commitment Sustainability Lower costs

7 NEX Advantages: VAT exemption
Ensures transparency and gives the donors better trust. Customs etc easier when it is UNDP Can pay higher salaries to staff and attract better expertise Disadvantages: Capacity constrains Influence of implementing agency interests In-country disputes and lack of cooperation between different Govt institutions In case of low Govt capacities often ends up close to DEX

8 CHALLENGES OF NEX Changes in Govt (staff and structure)
No ownership (name vs institution) No follow up to signed co-financing Low capacity (in spate of frequent trainings: CDI, CDW, FPSS) No substantive commitment from partners Signature of contracts, financial reports Prodoc signing delays Project implementation delays Corruption   

9 CHALLENGES OF NEX 2. Absence of coordination
FP is not functioning properly Environmental Ministries the weakest of all Govt not able to bring co-financing 3. Place of GEF projects in the CO Poor understanding of importance of GEF projects for SD Seed co-financing from UNDP CO Uniqueness of the GEF portfolio

10 DEX Decision by Associate Administrator
Used only in the countries with special development situations Must be temporary by nature Need to ensure transparency within UNDP by the division of responsibilities among several staff members DEX evaluated by UNDP Evaluation Office in A key finding - direct implementation services provided by UNDP are not detrimental to national ownership

11 DEX Advantage Disadvantage Flexibility Environment for innovation
Clear line of accountability Corruption avoidance and transparency UNDP commitment Greater efficiency/effectiveness UNDP neutrality ensures broader stakeholders participation Disadvantage Increased cost for DEX start-up Weak financial system. DEX approval process somewhat centralized.

12 UNDP CO Support Service under the request of EA
Formulating, monitoring and evaluation Provision of assistance for financial reporting and payments Identification and recruitment of project personnel Identification and provision of assistance for the implementation of training activities Procurement of goods and services Formal agreement for the provision of the support service to be signed

At the national level Understanding that GEF is tool for introduction SD principles in the national policy (MDG7(9)) GEF projects used as an entry point to strengthen national capacities for NEX. Involvement of CO in the early stages of formulation/negotiation. Identify constraints at the institutional level and at the CO level. Environment and GEF mainstreamed in the CO programme. At the regional level Out-sourcing GEF Advisors on country levels At HQ level To follow up with DEX Evaluation recommendations

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