Subordinating conjunctions: Adjective clauses: who, whom, which, that, whose, when, where Adjective clauses: who, whom, which, that, whose, when, where Adverb clauses: Adverb clauses: time: before, after, as soon as, since, until, while, whenever time: before, after, as soon as, since, until, while, whenever reason: as, because, since condition: as if, even if, if, unless contrast: although, even though, despite the fact that, whereas purpose: in order that, so that manner: as if, as though
A complex sentence adds a subordinate clause to a simple sentence. The subordinate clause is called a dependent clause while the simple sentence is called the independent clause.
Use subordinating conjunctions: Robert wanted to study at Harvard. His parents preferred Yale. We ate a large lunch. We had skipped breakfast. Computers are an important part of many people’s lives. Some people in the world have never seen one.
Coordinating conjunctions For: reason, means because For: reason, means because And: connects 2 sentences with similar ideas (positive/ negative) And: connects 2 sentences with similar ideas (positive/ negative) Nor: connects 2 negative sentences with inverted word order Nor: connects 2 negative sentences with inverted word order But: connects 2 sentences with contrasting or opposite ideas But: connects 2 sentences with contrasting or opposite ideas Or: connects 2 sentences that express alternatives or choices Or: connects 2 sentences that express alternatives or choices Yet: surprise Yet: surprise so: connects a reason and a result so: connects a reason and a result
Coordinating conjunctions Join two main clauses. They come between the clauses and are preceded by a comma
A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences joined by a comma and a coordinating word or by a semicolon.
Addition: My father loves kitchen gadgets, and he buys a new one every week. Contrast: A few of the gadgets are useful, but most of them just take up space. Result: We ran out of space for them in the kitchen, so he started to store them in the living room. Choice: My mother asked my father to please stop buying gadgets, or she would throw them out. Surprise: Of course, Dad came home the next week with three new ones, yet Mom wasn’t upset. Reason:Maybe she realized that buying little gadgets is harmless, for none of them cost a lot of money. Addition (negative): After all, he doesn’t buy sports cars, nor does he bring home a new yacht every week.
Japanese food is delicious to eat, and ___________________. Do you prefer living alone, or ___________________________.
Paired coordinating conjunctions Both … and - addition Both … and - addition Not only… but (also) - addition Not only… but (also) - addition Either … or – positive choices Either … or – positive choices Neither … nor – negative choices Neither … nor – negative choices
Content connected by coordinating conjunctions must be parallel. They must belong to the same grammatical category. (e.g. adjective, adverb, noun phrase, verb phrase, infinitive or gerund phrase).
The Italian film Life Is Beautiful made me both laugh and cry. It contained not only comic but also tragic scenes. Either my father or my mother will meet me at the airport. Neither my father nor my mother will meet me at the airport.
I don’t like country western music, nor … Interest rates continued to rise, yet… The children were hungry, but… We decided to go shopping, for… The hurricane was approaching, so…
Use appropriate conjunctions: The skier broke his leg. He couldn’t compete in the Olympics. Butter is very expensive. Most people buy margarine. Taking the bus is cheaper than driving. It conserves energy. Robert is a lazy student. He misses a lot of classes.
Use paired coordinating conjunctions: S ay something constructive. Don’t say anything at all (either …or) Americans pay income tax. They are charged high sales taxes in some states. (not only…, but also) He didn’t ask for permission. He didn’t give me an explanation of his action. (neither…,nor)
Using …Too or So Subject + auxiliary + too I can dance the Tango, and my husband can too So + auxiliary + subject I can dance the Tango, and so can my husband.
Using… Not either or Neither Subject + modal + not + either The teacher isn’t here, and the students aren’t either. Neither + modal + subject The teacher isn’t here, and neither are the students.
(not either) - I don’t have my book. Claudia doesn’t have her book. (too) - John has been to South America. Karen has been to South America. (so ) - My nephew lost his passport. My sister lost her passport. (Neither) - You haven’t done your homework. I haven’t done my homework.
Transitions A transition word can be used with a semicolon to make clearer the relationship between the two sentences.
Transitions Result : as a result, consequently, therefore, thus Result : as a result, consequently, therefore, thus Contrast : however, on the other hand, nonetheless, nevertheless Contrast : however, on the other hand, nonetheless, nevertheless Time: before that, after that, meanwhile, afterward, first Time: before that, after that, meanwhile, afterward, first Addition: moreover, furthermore, in addition Addition: moreover, furthermore, in addition Condition: otherwise Condition: otherwise Exemplification: for example, for instance Exemplification: for example, for instance
You must use a semicolon (;)before and a comma (,) after the transition word to join it and its clause to another independent clause. His first class begins at 8 AM; therefore, he leaves home at 7:30 AM to get there on time.
Use transitions People should exercise regularly. They will get out of shape. I would like to take an English literature course. I haven’t had the prerequisites yet. Working part time gives you more free time. You don’t earn as much money as full time workers do.