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**Lecture 30 sampling and field work**

By Aziza Munir

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**Learning Objectives Sampling design and sampling procedures**

Sampling terminology What is sample? Practical sampling concepts Random sampling and non sampling error What should be appropriate sampling design?

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Sampling The process of using a small number of items or parts of large population to make conclusions about the whole population Although sampling has a common place in daily activities, but most of these familiar concepts are not scientific in nature. The understanding of the concept might be intuitive, but actually it has a complex procedure and central importance in business research and data collection, which requires in depth examination

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**Sampling Terminology Sample:**

The process of sampling involves any procedure using a small number of items or parts of the whole population to make conclusions regarding the whole population. A sample is a subset or some part of a larger population. Population: Population or universe is a complete group of entities, sharing some common set of characteristics

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Population Element: An individual member of a specific population Census: An investigation of all the individual elements making up a population. A total enumeration rather than a sample

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**Why Sample? Pragmatic Reason: Cost constraints Time restriction**

Labor limitations Accurate and reliable results Destruction of test results To reduce the number of destructions if conducted on perishables or destroyable items

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**Practical Sampling Concepts**

Define the target population Select Sampling frame Select amongst probability and non probability sample Select sampling units Determine sample size Select Actual Sampling Units Conduct Field Work

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**Define Target Population**

The specific complete group relevant to the research project Comic book example

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Sampling Frame A list of elements from which a sample may be drawn, also called working population A list which can be worked operationally Maps and Ariel photographs maybe taken as sample frame if actual access is not possible

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Mailing List A list providing all names, addresses, and contact numbers of specific population Catalog Reverse Directory: A directory similar to a telephone directory in which listings may be found by city and street addresses and contact numbers rather than in alphabetical order Exists in multiple formats Provide demographic data Compiled by a researcher

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Sampling Frame Error Error that occurs when certain sample elements are not listed or available and are not represented in the sampling frame

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Sampling Units A single element or group of elements subject to selection in the sample Primary sampling Unit A unit selected in the first stage of sampling Secondary Sampling Unit A unit selected in the second stage of sampling

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**Random Sampling Error and Non Sampling error**

The difference between the result of sample and the result of census, conducted using identical procedures; a statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variation in the elements selected for a sample Non sampling error Error resulting from some imperfect aspect of the research design that causes response error or from mistake in execution of the research, error that come from such sources as sample bias, mistakes in recording responses, and non responses from persons not contacted and refusing to participate

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Non response error The statistical difference between a survey, that includes only those who responded and a survey that include those who had not responded

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**Probability VS Non Probability Sampling**

Judgment/purposive Sampling Convenience Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball sampling

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**Probability Sampling Simple random sampling Stratified sampling**

Systematic sampling Proportional/dis proportional sampling Cluster sampling

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**Simple Random Sampling**

A sampling procedure that assures each element in the population, an equal chance of being included in the sample

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Systematic Sampling A sampling procedure in which an initial starting point is selected by a random procedure and then every nth number on the list is selected Sampling interval The number of population elements between the units selected for sample Periodicity A problem that occurs in systematic sampling when original list has a systematic pattern

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Stratified Sampling A probability sampling procedure in which subsamples are drawn from samples within different strata that are more or less equal on some characteristics Proportional stratified sample: A stratified sample in which the number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in proportion to the relative population size of that stratum

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**Non proportional stratified sample:**

The sample size for each stratum is allocated on analytical consideration Optimal allocation: A sampling procedure in which both the size and variation of each stratum are considered when determining sample size for stratum

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Cluster Sampling An economically efficient sampling technique in which the primary sampling unit is not the individual element in population, but a large cluster of elements Area sample Multistage area sample

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**Appropriate sample design**

Degree of accuracy Resources Time Advance knowledge of population National and local projects Need for statistical analysis

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**Concluding Remarks Sample, population and census**

Issues regarding identification of target population and selection of sampling frame Probability and non probability sampling How to analyze appropriate sample design

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