1 Stronge Teacher Effectiveness Performance Evaluation System Data SourcesThe Stronge Evaluation System is based on the extant research related to the qualities of effective teachers. Notice that the word, “effectiveness” is right in the name of the system. We chose the graphic to illustrate that teacher effectiveness is reflected in their students’ achievement.
2 Teacher Responsibilities Having knowledge of the content, students, and curriculumPlanning instruction that meets student needs and curricular requirementsOffering appropriate and engaging instructionAssessing student workProviding a safe and secure learning environmentDemonstrating professionalism and communicating effectivelyIncreasing student achievementLet’s talk for a moment about a teacher’s responsibilities? (Discussion)Here is a list. Notice that these describe the seven teacher performance standards.
3 Limitations of Observation Observe 3 to 4 classes per year (.4% of performance)Classroom responsibilities onlySubject to evaluator biasFocus on process of teaching versus outcomesInspector model of evaluationTypically, teacher evaluation systems have focused solely on the use of one data source--observation. This data source provides data regarding a portion of a teacher’s responsibilities.What are some of the issues you have experienced with observation? (Discuss)Here are some of the limitations.
4 Multiple Data Sources for Teachers Enhancing Teacher Quality: QuestioningMultiple Data Sources for TeachersDocumentationLogStudent LearningObjectivesObservationsSurveysAs you saw in the previous presentation, rather than just using observation, the Stronge Evaluation System uses multiple data sources. We will talk about each source individually.Teacher EvaluationTQR Teacher Quality Resources, LLC (c) 2005
5 ObservationIntended to provide information on a wide variety of contributions made by teachers in the classroom or to the school community as a whole.May take a variety of formsFormal observationInformal observationWalk-through observationMay occur in a variety of settingsClassroom environmentNon-classroom environmentObservations can be conducted in a variety of settings and take on a variety of forms, including quick, drop-by classroom visits, to more formal, pre-planned observational reviews using validated instruments for documenting observations.
6 Formal Observations Directly focused on teacher performance standards May not see all standards in one observationMay include review of teacher artifacts or student dataAnnounced or unannouncedShould be at least 20 minutes in durationNon-tenured teachers observed at least three times per yearTenured teachers observed at least once per yearAdditional observations at building administrator’s discretionPre-observation conference at request of teacher or administratorEvaluator provides feedback during post-observation conferenceIn a formal observation, the evaluator conducts a structured or semi-structured, planned observation--either announced or unannounced--typically of a teacher who is presenting a lesson to or interacting with students. During this observation, the evaluator may not see all of the performance standards and may wish to review various teacher and student artifacts to provide a more complete picture.Each formal observation must be of at least 20 minutes duration. The school district may increase the number of minutes as desired.Non-tenured teachers should be observed at least three times a year, preferably twice in the first semester to provide formative feedback. The third observation should occur prior to March 1. School districts may modify this time schedule as desired. Tenured teachers must be observed at least once a year. Additional observations are at the building administrator’s discretion.Pre-observation conferences are optional; post-observation conferences are mandatory.There are specific observation requirements for the school districts participating in the EE4NJ Cohort 2. Districts should adhere to those more stringent requirements.Participants in EE4NJ Cohort 2 have specific observation requirements
7 Sample Formal Observation Form Directions: This form is to be used for both tenured and non-tenured teachers. Observers should use the form to provide feedback to teachers about the observation.Teacher’s NameDate ObservedTime1. Professional KnowledgeThe teacher demonstrates an understanding of the curriculum, subject content, and the developmental needs of students by providing relevant learning experiences.Effectively addresses appropriate curriculum standards.Integrates key content elements and facilitates students’ use of higher level thinking skills in instruction.Demonstrates ability to link present content with past and future learning experiences, other subject areas, and real world experiences and applications.Demonstrates an accurate knowledge of the subject matter.Demonstrates skills relevant to the subject area(s) taught.Bases instruction on goals that reflect high expectations and an understanding of the subject.Demonstrates an understanding of the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical development of the age group.Communicates clearly and checks for understanding.Evidence:2. Instructional PlanningThe teacher plans using the state’s standards, the school’s curriculum, effective strategies, resources, and data to meet the needs of all students.Uses student learning data to guide planning.Plans time realistically for pacing, content mastery, and transitions.Plans for differentiated instruction.Aligns lesson objectives to the school’s curriculum and student learning needs.Develops appropriate long- and short-range plans and adapts plans when needed.Here is an example of a formal observation form. There are other observation forms provided in your teacher handbook. School districts may modify this form as they see fit. You have a sample of a completed formal observation form included in your training materialsAbbreviated for training purposes
8 Informal Observations Provide more frequent information on wide variety of teacher contributionsClassroom and non-classroom settingsLess structured than formal observationsNo specified durationOccur throughout the yearEvaluator completes observation form; provides copy to teacherInformal observations provide information on a variety of teacher contributions and may occur in a variety of settings. Evaluators are encouraged to conduct informal observations by observing instruction and non-instructional routines at various times throughout the evaluation cycle. These informal observations typically are less structured than formal observations.There is not specified duration for informal observations, although they are typically of shorter duration than formal observations. These observations are documented using an appropriate observation form. Evaluators will provide feedback from informal observations through any appropriate means.(Typically, walk-through observations are designed to provide brief (three to five minutes) visits in multiple classrooms. While walk-through visits can be helpful in checking for standard instructional practices or for vertical and horizontal curriculum articulation across the school, evaluators should be cautious in relying on these visits for individual teacher evaluation as, generally, they are not designed for teacher evaluation.)
9 Sample Informal Observation Form 1. Professional KnowledgeAddresses appropriate curriculum standardsIntegrates key content elements and facilitates students’ use of higher level thinking skillsDemonstrates ability to link present content with past and future learningDemonstrates an accurate knowledge of the subject matterDemonstrates skills relevant to the subject area(s) taughtBases instruction on goals that reflect high expectationsDemonstrates an understanding of the knowledge of developmentCommunicates clearlySpecific Examples2. Instructional PlanningUses student learning data to guide planningPlans time for realistic pacingPlans for differentiated instructionAligns lesson objectives to curriculum and student needsDevelops appropriate long- and short-range plans and adapts plansSpecific Examples:3. Instructional DeliveryEngages studentsBuilds on prior knowledgeDifferentiates instructionReinforces learning goalsUses a variety of strategies/resourcesUses instructional technologyHere is an example of an informal observation form. There are other observation forms provided in your teacher handbook. School districts may modify this form as they see fit. You have a sample of a completed informal observation form included in your training materialsAbbreviated for training purposes
10 Documentation LogDemonstrates teacher’s professional competence in regard to meeting performance standards – teacher’s voice in evaluationComplements classroom observationIncludes both specific required artifacts and teacher-selected artifactsHelps to clarify instructional relationship between lesson plans, student work, and assessments; should include analysis and reflectionMore concise than portfolios; district needs to relay expectationsProperty of teacher; reviewed by evaluator at least annuallyArtifacts of a teacher’s performance can serve as valuable and insightful data source for documenting the work that teachers actually do. They give the teacher an opportunity to demonstrate evidence of meeting the performance standards. The items included provide evaluators with information they likely would not observe during the course of a typical classroom visit.We have provided a list of examples of documentation that might be used to demonstrate evidence of meeting the standards. School districts may modify this list and may make some items required or leave them as optional.The emphasis is on the quality of work, not the quantity of materials presented. Teachers should not be creating artifacts specifically for the Documentation Log; rather, they including artifacts they create in their normal day-to-day operations. It is important for school districts to make their expectations for the Documentation Log clear.
11 Sample Documentation Log Cover Sheet StandardsRequired ItemExamples of EvidenceEvidence Included1. Professional KnowledgeTranscripts of courseworkProfessional Development certificatesAnnotated list of instructional activitiesLesson/intervention planJournals/notes that represent reflective thinking and professional growthSamples of innovative approaches developed by teacher2. InstructionalPlanningEvidence of using data about student learning to guide planning and instructionDifferentiation in lesson planning and practiceAnalysis of classroom assessmentData driven curriculum revision workExamples:- Sample lesson or unit plan- Course syllabus- Intervention plan- Substitute lesson plan- Annotated learning objectives3. InstructionalDeliveryAnnotated photographs of class activitiesHandouts or sample workVideo/audio samples of instructional unitsThis is a portion of the Documentation Log Cover Sheet. You can see that it suggests various artifacts. The school district may choose to make some items required. A complete Documentation Log Cover Sheet may be found in your training materials.Abbreviated for training purposes
12 Student SurveysProvide students’ perceptions of how teacher is performing -- direct knowledge of classroom practicesAssist teacher in setting goals for continuous improvement (formative evaluation)Age considerations for surveySurveys are anonymousActual responses seen only by individual teacherSurvey summary form included in documentation logStudent surveys represent an additional source of information regarding teacher performance. The purpose of a student survey is to collect information that will help the teacher set goals for continuous improvement (i.e., for formative evaluation).There are four different surveys that teachers can administer: Grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and The surveys are aligned to the performance standards.School districts may modify how the survey is administered, but we recommend that the teacher administer the survey prior to the end of the first semester so that he or she can use the results to help improve his or her practice (end of first quarter if it is a semester course). The teacher collects the results and uses a survey summary sheet to reflect on what the students perceived as strengths, weaknesses, and what he or she might do to address the weaknesses. The survey summary sheet becomes part of the Documentation Log.
13 Sample Grades K-2 Survey Example: I like to eat pizza.1. My teacher listens to me.2. My teacher gives me help when I need it.Here is an example of the types of questions on the K-2 student survey.Abbreviated for training purposes
14 Sample Grades 6-8 Survey Example: I like listening to music. 1 2 3 4 5 StronglyDisagreeNeutralAgreeExample: I like listening to music.123451. My teacher gives clear instructions.2. My teacher shows respect to all students.3. My teacher handles classroom disruptions well.4. My teacher helps me to be organized.Here are some questions students in middle school might see.Abbreviated for training purposes
15 What are some of the possibilities and pitfalls of using student surveys? Teachers receive feedback from the receivers of their servicesTeachers can use as a formative evaluation to improve practiceConcern that results are based on popularitySurveys might not ask the right questionsSurveys might not ask the right students.Advantages of Student SurveysStudents are the primary consumers of the teacher’s services. They have direct knowledge about classroom practices on a regular basis. Students have the breath, depth, and length of experience with the teacher. They are in the key position to provide information about teacher effectiveness and they can discriminate the quality in their teachers’ performance. In addition, student observations of teachers are unobtrusive and occur in the most naturalistic settings.Students’ perceptions are beneficial for teacher improvement. Teachers look to their students rather than to outside sources for indications of their teaching performance.Concerns about Student SurveysThere is ample evidence to support the use of student surveys in teacher evaluation. We will talk more about this issue on the next slide.Student surveys should be restricted to descriptions of life in the classroom. They should be based on discrete and visible behaviors as a way to increase reliability. Student survey data for multiple years may be needed to establish patterns of performance.No matter how solid the survey instruments are, good sampling procedures are still needed to generate quality data. Surveys intended for use in evaluation should reflect a cross-section of the teacher’s student population.
16 What does research say about usability and reliability of survey data? Secondary students reliably rate teachersElementary students demonstrate adequate reliability for rating teachersStudent ratings of teachers are a significant predictor of student achievement—better than parent or administrator ratingsThere is ample evidence to support the use of student surveys in teacher evaluation. Research consistently has indicated that students from Kindergarten to high school can provide reliable and useful information related to teacher effectiveness.Students have the ability to provide perspectives that principals cannot offer. Researchers who compared students’ ratings of meritorious and non-meritorious teachers with ratings from expert practitioners found that the students were able to discriminate between meritorious and non-meritorious teachers as well as the qualified evaluators.Researchers have also compared the validity of ratings by students, principals, and the teachers, themselves. They found students’ ratings were the best predictor of student achievement, thus demonstrating that students provide valid feedback on teacher performance.Faucette, Ball, & Ostrander, 1995; Stronge & Ostrander, 2006; Wilkerson, Mannatt, Rogers, & Maughan, 2000
17 Recommendations for Interpreting Survey Results Review results and ask yourself the following questions:Is the information your students provided about you accurate?If you agree that the information is accurate, are you satisfied with the students’ perceptions about you?If you believe the information is inaccurate, do you know why your students have these perceptions?Do you need to make changes to improve your students’ perceptions?If you think changes are justified, consider using the student data to set a personal or instructional goal for improvement.Teachers should review the results and reflect on the questions listed above.
18 Sample Student Survey Summary Form Here is a sample of the Student Survey Summary Form. A complete form may be found in your training materialsAbbreviated for training purposes
19 Student Learning Objectives Student Learning Objectives used for both teachers of tested and non-tested grades and subjectsPercentage of Standard 7 weight determined by stateAppropriate measures of academic progress are determinedTeachers set objectives for improving student progress based on the results of performance measuresQuality of the objectives and their attainment provide an important data source for evaluationThe New Jersey Educator Effectiveness Task Force has recommended that Student Achievement (Standard 7 in the Stronge Evaluation System) account for 50% of the evaluation for teachers of tested grades and subjects and between 15%-50% for teachers of non-tested grades/subjects (New Jersey Department of Education Notice of Grant Opportunity, March 2012).A portion of Standard 7 may be determined by Student Learning Objectives.Setting learning objectives based squarely on student performance is a powerful way to enhance professional performance and, in turn, positively impact student achievement. Student Learning Objectives are designed to improve student learning.Depending on grade level, content area, and learners’ ability level, appropriate measures of learner performance are identified to provide information on learning gains. Performance measures may include standardized test results as well as other pertinent data sources. Teachers set objectives for improving student progress based on the results of performance measures. The Student Learning Objectives and their attainment constitute an important data source for evaluation.We will spend a majority of the session tomorrow exploring Student Learning Objectives.
20 Sample Student Learning Objectives Progress Form Here is a sample of a Student Learning Objectives Progress Form. A complete form may be found in your training materials.Abbreviated for training purposes
21 Data Collection Responsibility Data Collection ProcedureForm(s)EvaluatorTeacherMeasures of Academic ProgressStudent Learning Objectives FormReviews/ approvesSelects/ developsInformal ObservationsInformal Classroom Observation FormFormal ObservationsFormal Classroom Observation FormStudent SurveysStudent Survey Forms (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12)Student Survey SummaryDocumentation LogsDocumentation Log Cover SheetSelf-AssessmentOptional Teacher Self-Assessment FormAs you saw in the overview presentation, data collection is a shared responsibility between teachers and evaluators.You’ll notice that self-assessment is also included on this chart. Teachers reflect on their practice throughout the evaluation process by reflecting on their goals and strategies used to achieve them, they reflect on items they place into the Documentation Log, and they reflect on the results of the student survey. Should teachers wish to reflect in a more structured manner, the teacher handbook contains an optional self-evaluation form teachers may use.
22 Sample Self-Assessment Form Here is an optional sample Self-Assessment Form. A completed sample form is in your training materials.Abbreviated for training purposes
23 Multiple Data Sources Performance Portrait Observations Documentation Student LearningObjectivesObservationsDocumentationLogSurveysMultiple data sources provide for a comprehensive and authentic “performance portrait” of the teacher’s work.Performance Portrait