Presentation on theme: "What are the causes and impacts of changing gender structures?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What are the causes and impacts of changing gender structures? Changing gender structures in populations as countries pass through the demographic transition
2 Demographic features associated with natural change…. The biological fact that male births exceed female births (106 males : 100 females) so LEDC pyramids clearly show more younger males than females.Unless you take China = 100 females:120 malesIn most parts of the world male mortality rates are higher than female rates meaning longer female life expectancy so MEDC pyramids show more elderly females than males
3 Stage 2 - UgandaConcave or very steep sides = high birth rate and high death rate with short life expectancyMore boys than girlsAdults have equal males and females as childhood diseases and IMR and lifestyle cause more boys to dieIn ‘old age’ of 30s and 40s there may be more males as females die through childbirth and heavy female responsibility.Sketch the pyramidAnnotate the pyramid with 3 gender related points
4 Stage 3 - China Sketch pyramid Annotate 3 gender related points Population is larger as medicine has improved and the IMR has fallenIn adulthood the gender ratio tends to be equalOut migration of males could create an imbalance with more femalesIn old age the females usually outnumber the males. Emancipation of women is just beginning and so they are unlikely to have faced ‘workplace’ stress. Men die off at an earlier age from workplace stress, being involved in more hazardous occupations and from lifestyle diseases,Sketch pyramidAnnotate 3 gender related points
5 Stage 3 - ZimbabweThe impact of war can be clearly seen on the year old age group.What has happened to the males?
6 Stage 4 - UK Population begins to stabilise and then fall More boy babies are born but the birth rate is lowBoys die at a faster rate because they are more prone to disease, become more involved in hazardous activities and make unhealthier lifestyle choicesIn adulthood the gender ratio is balanced unless an out-migration of males occurs e.g. PolandFrom the age of 73 onwards females outnumber males. The ratio increases from 1.3 at age 73 to nearly 3 at the age of 90.This is due to the higher life expectancy of women and higher male mortality during WWIIDraw the pyramidAnnotate 3 gender related features
7 Stage 4 - EuropeWhat changes do you notice over time?
8 Stage 5 - Russia Sketch pyramid Annotate 3 gender related points Population decliningRussia’s BR is similar to other European countriesDR higher due to higher death rate of working age males due to alcohol induced heart diseaseThere is a below average ratio of over 65 males – may be due to emigration and higher male mortality s a result of higher Soviet era deathsSketch pyramidAnnotate 3 gender related points
9 Stage 5 - Germany Low BR – more boys than girls There are a lot less men then women in the range - many German men were killed in World War II.There is a large percentage of the population from 30 to 50 – slightly more men than women. These are the immigrants from the Arab and African world that have come to work in Germany.1. Sketch pyramid2. Annotate 3 gender related points
10 Task 2 Card sort – Why does gender structure change? Sort the cards into the following categories:BiologyStages of the DTMMigrationGender concentrations
11 Gender StructureGender structure is influenced by two demographic factors associated with natural change:The biological fact that male births exceed female births – natural sex ratio is 106 males:100 females. An LEDC population pyramid is characterised by more younger males than femalesMale mortality rates are higher than female rates – this means longer female life expectancy. An MEDC population pyramid is characterised by more elderly females than males
12 How does migration affect gender imbalance? Which sex tends to migrate?
13 What happens to gender structures as they pass through the DTM?
14 Task 3 Case Studies India – infanticide China – one child policy IVF and designer babies