Presentation on theme: "FOR SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING CONTENT-BASE INSTRUCTION AND IMMERSION MODELS."— Presentation transcript:
FOR SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING CONTENT-BASE INSTRUCTION AND IMMERSION MODELS
OBJECTIVES Define the word content in relation to language learning. Identify the factors that define the different content-based models. Recognize the theories behind content-based instruction. Recognize the five different models of content- based instruction. Identify the features of each model. Recognize the different strategies of content-based teachers and content-based instructors.
WHAT IS CONTENT? Traditionally Content is defined as …. the communicative purposes for which speakers use the second/foreign language. There are some approaches that have different notions of what is content. e.g. -The Grammar-translation method -The Audiolingual method -The Communicative Approach -Natural Approach (refer to text book p. 303) The Recent definition for Content is… The Use of subject matter for Second/foreign language teaching purposes. Look up the meaning of subject matter. (p.303)
-Content based instruction can be found in Foreign and second language settings. -Content based instruction can be implemented at the elementary level or secondary and post secondary level. Factors that define different content-based instruction models: (refer to p.303)
RATIONALE Theoretical foundation of Content based instruction: Krashen’s comprehensible input (p.304) i+1 What is comprehensible input? Studies from Canadian Immersion programs (p.304) What are the findings of these studies? Sociocultural Approaches (Vygotsky notions) (p.304) What are Vygotsky’s notions? Cognitive psychology (Anderson’s theory)(p.304) Mention Anderson's theory?
MODELS OF CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION Models of Content-based instruction can be distinguished by different means: 1.Setting 2.Instructional level 3.The degree of emphasis on language and content (refer to p.304)
MODELS OF CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION There are five models of content-based instruction 1.Immersion Model 2.Content-Enriched Foreign language in the Elementary school 3.Theme-based Model 4.Sheltered Model 5.Adjunct Model
IMMERSION MODEL It was established in Canada and now can be found all over North America. In the total Immersion Model, students receive the majority of their schooling through the Second/Foreign language. By the end of the elementary school, the students become functional bilingual. Second/foreign language is generally used for most of the academic instruction beginning in kindergarten or grade 1. Most Immersion programs share the same objectives. (p.306) What are these objectives?
CONTENT-ENRICHED FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL During the 1950s and 1960s, foreign language in the elementary school (FLES) programs were widespread across the US. “Traveling teachers” meet with students for 20 to 30 minutes, several times per week for foreign language instruction. These classes focus on formal study of the foreign language. These programs were criticized for their failure in producing functional users of the foreign language.
CONTENT-ENRICHED FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL “content-enriched” FLES offers and updated approach to traditional FLES, in which subjects from the standard school curriculum are selected for introduction or reinforcement in the FLES class. Teachers find points of coincidence with the standard school curriculum which can be paired with the objectives of the foreign language curriculum. Give an example from the text that explains content-enriched FLES? (refer to p.306) What are the advantages that content-enriched FLES have for language learning?
THEME-BASED MODEL The theme-based model is a type of content-based instruction in which selected topics or themes provide the content from which teachers extract language learning activities. This model is widely implemented in language institutions at the college or university level. The teacher’s goal is to select topics suitable for academic English skills. Find an example in the text on a topic that is taught through the theme-based model? (p.307)
THEME-BASED MODEL Content is incorporated into the theme-base model through different means. What are these means? (refer to p.307) In 1997, the first systematic framework for theme- based instruction was offered. It was called the Six T’s Approach. What are these six T’s? (p.307)
SHELTERED MODEL Sheltered courses currently exist in a variety of secondary and postsecondary settings. Sheltered models mean the separation of second/foreign language students from native speakers of the target language for the purpose of content instruction. Refer to the examples of the sheltered model on p.307.
ADJUNCT MODEL The adjunct model is a content-based approach in which students are concurrently enrolled in a language class and a content course. A key feature of the adjunct models the coordination of objectives and assignments between language and content instructors. The language class becomes content based in the sense that the students’ needs in the content class dictate the activities of the language class. For examples, refer to p. 308-309
STRATEGIES FOR CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION Strategies for language teachers The focus of language learning is the mastery of the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking). In addition, language learning in content-based instruction is for academic success. For example, students must develop strategies for note taking, summarizing reading material, and developing study guides. There are many strategies to teach the four skills. (you will cover it in curr 423)
STRATEGIES FOR CONTENT INSTRUCTORS The instructor is primarily concerned with delivering subject matter with the language skills needed to succeed. To do this the teacher must utilize a variety of techniques: There are four general categories for these techniques. Refer to p.313 for these instructional techniques.