14 Gathering from external sources Customer: Extension of product features: Specialization: new attributes, process variants Completion: covering the whole workflow Interoperability: interfacing with other products Market: Product positioning Standard functionality coverage Market distinction: unique selling points Partners: Product implementation Voice of customers Partner revenue generating features
15 Gathering from internal sources - 1 Company board Long term product vision Major product themes Influence from portfolio and lifecycle decisions Sales Input from Request for Information (RFI) and Request for Proposals (RFP) Short term vision Marketing Sense of the market; market trends, Competitors, market analysis
16 Gathering from internal sources - 2 Research & innovation Functional feature innovation Technical platform innovation; prototypes with new devices Development Refactoring of architectural problems Process optimization Services Features that facilitate implementation: migration tools, business modeling tools Voice of customer Support Frequently occurring problems
17 Communication channels Stakeholder input channel: Specific process for each channel Educate internal stakeholders about process obligations (sales and marketing, board, etc.) Do NOT allow bypassing of product management Agenda time allocation per input channel Always give a response to every input of a market requirement Careful with explicit communication of release inclusion, best in case of development completion
18 Requirements gathering techniques Lead user interviews User groups Workshops Brainstorming Beta customers Prototyping Questionnaires
19 Lead user interviews Interviews with representatives of certain groups of stakeholders or key accounts Lead Users are users of a product that currently experience needs still unknown to the public and who also benefit greatly if they obtain a solution to these needs (von Hippel, 1986) Involved stakeholdersAdvantagesDisadvantages Lead users Product manager(s) High-quality outcomeTime-consuming Difficult to find representative lead users
25 User groups Groups of customers who commonly use your products and services. They provide input on product improvements, and offer feedback on their needs and desires Involved stakeholdersAdvantagesDisadvantages Members of user groups Product manager(s) High-quality outcome, focused on actual business problems Improved customer relationships Risk of dominating users Risk of ‘complain sessions’ Too much focus on low-level requirements
30 Workshops Or: Joint requirements development sessions Requirements are jointly identified and defined by stakeholders. Cross-functional implications that are unknown to individual stakeholders are uncovered. Involved stakeholdersAdvantagesDisadvantages Relevant internal and external stakeholders Product manager(s) Uncovering cross- functional issues High-quality outcome Customer buy-in Time-consuming Danger of ‘opinion- leadership’ Who commits to requirements?
35 Brainstorming Gathering of stakeholders and the exchange of ideas in an open atmosphere where no one risks being ridiculed for their ideas and no ideas are rejected/criticized. Involved stakeholdersAdvantagesDisadvantages Relevant internal and external stakeholders Product manager(s) Many ideasToo many ideas Difficult to create a good atmosphere where everyone is involved Difficult to get good representation of customer base
41 Beta customers Users who test the beta-version of a working product in a real production environment Involved stakeholdersAdvantagesDisadvantages Customers Developer(s) Account manager(s) Product manager(s) Clear requirements Mutual trust and commitment Can also be used for testing customer- specific functionality Time-consuming Difficult to get good representation of customer base
42 Prototyping Users can experiment with the system and point out its strengths and weaknesses of the implemented requirements. Involved stakeholdersAdvantagesDisadvantages End users Developers/designers Product manager(s) Visualization stimulates new ideas Usability issues are also included Interaction between designer and end- user lead to high- quality outcome Time-consuming High costs Not all functionalities are covered “Is it already done?”
47 Questionnaires Research instrument to get quantitative data from respondents Involved stakeholdersAdvantagesDisadvantages End usersLot of information Low costs Difficult to create good questionnaires
52 Selection of techniques Experience Product team Experience Customer / User lowhigh low high Fuzzy problem Teaching Catch-up Mature Fuzzy problem: Brainstorming Workshops Teaching: Prototypes Beta-customers Catch-up: Lead user interviews User groups Work in user setting Mature: Questionnaires Workshops Prototypes Based on: A.M. Hickey, A.M. Davis, "Elicitation Technique Selection: How Do Experts Do It?," 11th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE'03), pp.169, 2003.
53 Demonstration of Customer voting A. Electronic voting on prepared list of requirements B. User suggestions for Facebook features Find out which profiles are visited by your friends (y:15, n: 30) Show statistics of visitors of your profile (y: 9, n: 18) Turn off game application notifications from others (y: 45) Find out who visited your profile (y:17, n: 16) Face recognition functionality to find look-a-likes (y:28, n:7)