Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE CRIMINAL COURT Chapter 7. Background  English Law practice dates back to William the Conqueror, 1066.  “Court” refers to an enclosed place.  Constitution.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "THE CRIMINAL COURT Chapter 7. Background  English Law practice dates back to William the Conqueror, 1066.  “Court” refers to an enclosed place.  Constitution."— Presentation transcript:


2 Background  English Law practice dates back to William the Conqueror, 1066.  “Court” refers to an enclosed place.  Constitution Act 1867 divided the responsibilities of Canada’s criminal courts to provincial and federal governments.

3 Government  Federal Parliament is responsible for formulating criminal law and procedure.  It has created three areas of Law: 1. Supreme Court of Canada 2. Federal Courts of Canada 3. Tax Court of Canada  Provincial governments organize and maintain the criminal court system. They also appoint their judges.  Federal government appoints federal court judges as well as superior court and appeal court judges.

4 Provincial Courts  Two sections: 1. Provincial Courts- Trials only. -trial by judge only 2. Superior Courts of the province a. Trials b. Appeals

5 The Courts  Provincial court: The lowest level in the hierarchy of Canadian courts.  Superior Court of the province: the highest criminal court, consisting of a trial division and appeal division.  Court of appeal: A court with the authority to review decisions made by lower courts.

6 Court continue…  Federal Court of Canada: a court that hears cases involving the federal government. Has trial and appeal division.  Supreme Court of Canada: the highest appeals court in Canada. Also deals with constitutional questions referred to it by the federal government.

7 Important definitions  Preliminary hearings: a judicial inquiry to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to put the accuse on trial.  Appeal: An application to a higher court to review the decision made by a lower court.  Leave: Permission to appeal a case from a lower court to a higher court.  Beyond reasonable doubt: a standard of proof whereby a defendant’s guilt must be proven to the extent that a reasonable person would have no choice but to conclude that the defendant did indeed commit the crime.

8 The Participants  Judge: The court official appointed to try cases in a court of law and to sentence convicted persons.  Justice of the peace: a court official who has less authority than a judge but can issue warrants and perform other judicial functions.  Accused (defendant) in criminal court, the person charged with committing the offence.

9 More Participants  Accused: (defendant) in criminal court, this is the person charged with the criminal offence.  Duty Counsel: The lawyer on duty in the courtroom or police station to give free legal advice to persons who are arrested or brought before the court.  Defense counsel: the lawyer who defends the accused.  Crown Attorney (prosecutor) The lawyer that represents the government, responsible for instituting legal proceedings against the accused.

10 Even More Participants  Court Clerk: The court official who assists the judge.  Court reporter: The court official who records everything said during a trial.  Court security officer: The court official who maintains the security of the room.  Sheriff: The court official responsible for jury management.  Bailiff: The court official who assists the sheriff.  Witnesses: Persons who give evidence while under oath in a court of law.

11 The final list of Participants  Jury: in a criminal trial, a group of 12 people who decide whether the accused is guilty or not.  Jury Panel: A large group of randomly selected citizens from which jury members are chosen.

12 Preliminary Hearing  Promise to appear: A signed agreement that an accused person will appear in court at the time of the trial.  Recognizance: a guarantee that the accused will appear in court when required, under the penalty of a fine up to $500.  Surety: a person who agrees to make payment if the accused does not appear at trial.  Bail: the temporary release of an accused who posts money or some sort of other security.

13 First things first.  Show-case Hearing: a judicial hearing in which the crown or the accused has to convince the judge either top detain or release the accuse before the trial.  Reverse onus: the burden of proof shifts to defense.  Property bond: This is when money is not available to post a bail and property or other assets are posted instead.

14 Choosing a Jury activity.  Challenge for a cause: the right of the crown or defense to exclude someone from jury for a particular reason.  Peremptory Challenge: The right of the crown or defense to exclude someone from a jury without providing a reason.

15 Language of the Court  Evidence: information that tends to prove or disprove the elements of an offence.  Transcript: a typed record of everything said in a court trial.  Subpoena: a court order requiring a witness to appear in court on a certain date to give evidence.  Perjury: knowingly makes false statements in court while giving evidence under oath or affirmation.  Arraignment: The first stage of the criminal trial in which the court clerk reads the charge and the defendant enters a plea.

16 The Language of Law  Burden of proof: The Crown’s obligation to prove the guilt of the accused beyond a reasonable doubt.  Direct examination: The first question of a witness to determine what he or she observed about the crime.  Cross-examination: The second questioning of a witness to test the accuracy of the testimony; performed by the opposing attorney.  Motion for dismissal: A request by defense counsel that the judge dismiss the charges against the defendant.

17 The language of law continued:  Rebut: to contradict evidence introduced by the opposing side.  Surrebuttal: a reply to the opposing side rebuttal.  Hearsay Evidence: Evidence given by a witness based on information received from someone else rather than personal knowledge.  Opinion statements: When a witness gives information on their own opinion. Defense and prosecution cannot ask for the witness to give their opinion unless they are an expert in a particular field related to the crime.  Immaterial or irrelevant questions: The questions must be relative to the case in question.

18 The language of law continued  Non responsive answer: when the witness gives and answer that does not address the question.  Direct evidence: testimony given by a witness to prove an alleged fact.  Circumstantial Evidence: indirect evidence that leads to a reasonable inference of the defendant’s guilt.  Character Evidence: evidence used to establish the likelihood that the defendant is the type of person who either would or would not commit a certain offence.

19 Suerveillance  Electronic surveillance: the use of any electronic device to overhear or record communications between two or more people.  Wiretapping: the interception of telephone communications  Bugging: recording a speaker’s oral communication by using an electronic device. NOTE: all of these must be authorized by a judge before hand in order to be admissible in court.

20 Other methods  Polygraph: “lie detector” is a machine that allows examiners to determine physical signs that indicate deception.  Voir Dire is a mini-trial in which the jurors are excluded while the admissibility of evidence is discussed.  Charge to the jury: the judge’s explanation to the jurors of how the law applies to the case before them.

21 The end result  Hung jury: a jury that cannot reach a unanimous verdict and is consequently dismissed from the case.  Appellant: The party that files for an appeal.  Respondent: the Party that responds to the appeal.  Mistrial: A trial that becomes invalid because of basic prejudicial error in procedure.  Sentencing: a conclusion given on request or reached after deliberation.

Download ppt "THE CRIMINAL COURT Chapter 7. Background  English Law practice dates back to William the Conqueror, 1066.  “Court” refers to an enclosed place.  Constitution."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google