Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science"— Presentation transcript:
1 Environmental Science Chapter 1 Lecture NotesScience and the Environment
2 Chapter 1: Section 1 Targets Define environmental science and compare environmental science with ecology.List and Define the five major fields of study that contribute to environmental science.Describe the major environmental effects of hunter-gatherers, the agricultural revolution, and the Industrial Revolution.Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources.Classify environmental problems into three major categories.
3 What Is Environmental Science? Environmental Science: study of how____________ affect their ___________and _____________ surroundings
4 Goals of Environmental Science Major goal of environmental science is to understand and solve environmental problems.Environmental scientists study 2 main types of interactions between humans and the environment:___________________________________
5 Environmental Science vs. Ecology Environmental science involves many fields of study, including ecology.Ecology: study of _________________ of livingorganisms with _________________ and their___________________Environmental Science vs. Ecology:Major Levels Studied by Ecologists?
6 Fields of Study Used by Environmental Scientists
7 Scientists as Citizens, Citizens as Scientists Who is usually the first person to recognize an environmental problem?The observations of ________________ are the first steps toward addressing an environmental problem.
8 Our Environment Through Time Wherever humans have hunted, grown food,or settled, they have ________________ the environment.
9 Hunter-Gatherers Hunter-gatherers: people who get food by _________________ and _____________ wildanimals or _____________ their remains.Hunter-gatherers affect their environment in many ways:They hunted animals, ______________________The tribes also set fires to burn prairies andprevent ____________________. This left the prairie as an open grassland ideal for hunting bison.
10 Hunter-GatherersIn North America, climate changes and overhunting by hunter-gatherers led to disappearance of large mammal species, including:giant slothsmastodonscave bearssaber-toothed cats
11 The Agricultural Revolution __________________: raising crops and livestock for food or other products used by humansPractice of agriculture began over 10,000 years agoOften called ___________________________Allowed human populations to grow at faster rate. WHY?Many habitats were destroyed and replaced with farmland.Replacing forest with farmland caused_______________, ______________, and________________.
12 The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution: shift from ______________ such as animals/running water to _____________ like __________________Using fossil fuels increased efficiency of agriculture, industry, and transportationEXAMPLE:On farms, machinery reduced _____________ and _________________ needed to produce foodWith fewer people producing their own food, populations in ______________ steadily grew
13 Improving the Quality of Life Industrial Revolution introduced many positive changes such as the light bulbAllowed better farming, sanitation, nutrition, and medical careIndustrial Revolution also introduced new environmental problems such as ____________ and _____________________We now have materials such as plastics, artificial pesticides, and fertilizersMuch of environmental science is concerned with problems associated with the Industrial Revolution
14 Spaceship Earth Earth is a _____________ – what does this mean? Why can living in a closed system be a bad thing?Some resources are _____________, as populations grow, they are used more rapidlyWe may also produce ____________ faster than they can be disposedEnvironmental problems can be on different scales: local, regional, or globalA local example would be your community discussing where to build a new landfillA regional example would be a polluted river 1000 miles away affecting the region’s waterA global example would be the depletion of the ozone layer
15 Comprehension Check 1. Name a global environmental problem. 2. Name a local environmental problem.3. Could the local problem be a part of the global problem? If so, how?
16 What are our Main Environmental Problems? Environmental problems can generally be grouped into three categories:_______________________As you watch this video, add two more environmental problems to this list4)5)
17 Resource Depletion__________________: any natural materials used by humans, such as, water, petroleum, minerals, forests, and animals.Classified as either a renewable or nonrenewable.Renewable resources: _______________________________________________________________________________ Nonrenewable resources: ____________Recyclable vs. Renewable
18 PollutionPollution: negative effect on environment caused by introduction of __________________ or by ______________________________________________________________
19 Pollution Two main types of pollutants: ___________________________ Can be broken down by natural processes and include materials such as newspaperAre a problem only when they accumulate faster than they can be broken downCannot be broken down by natural processes and include materials such as mercuryThey can build up to dangerous levels in the environment
20 Loss of BiodiversityBiodiversity: _________________ in a given area or the ____________ within a populationThese organisms can be considered natural resourcesCan you think of 3 reasons why biodiversity would be important to our survival?
21 Comprehension Check How do scientists define a nonrenewable resource? A. a resource that is used by humansB. a resource that can never be replacedC. a resource that can be replaced relatively quicklyD. a resource that takes more time to replace than to deplete
22 Comprehension Check2. Which of the following is an important field for environmental science?A. ecologyB. economicsC. meteorologyD. political science
23 Comprehension Check3. Which of the following phrases describes the term biodiversity?A. species that have become extinctB. the animals that live in an areaC. species that look different from one anotherD. the number and variety of species that live in an area
24 Comprehension Check4. Energy from the sun, water, air, wood, and soil are all examples of what kind of energy?F. ecological energyG. organic energyH. renewable energyI. solar energy
25 Chapter 1: Section 2 Targets Describe “The Tragedy of the Commons”.Explain the Law of Supply and Demand.List three differences between developed and developing countries.Explain what sustainability is, and describe why it is a goal of environmental science.
26 “The Tragedy of the Commons” Ecologist Garrett Hardin argued there is a conflictbetween the _____________________ of theindividual and the __________________ of society.The example he used was the commons, or the areas of land that belonged to the whole village.
27 “The Tragedy of the Commons” Individuals want as many animals in the commons as possible.If too many animals graze on commons, they destroy the grass.Once grass was destroyed, everyone suffered because no one could raise animals on the commons.Hardin’s realized someone must take responsibility for maintaining a resource or it will become depleted.This can be applied to our natural resources.
29 Supply and DemandLaw of Supply and Demand: as demand for a good or service ____________, value of the food or service also ______________.Example: oil production
30 Developed and Developing Countries Developed countries have:___________ incomes___________ population growth______________ industrial economies____________ social supportDeveloping countries have:____________ average incomes___________ agriculture-based communities_______ population growth
31 Population and Consumption Almost all environmental problems are traced back to 2 main causes:1. The human population in some areas is ______________________ for the local environment to support.2. People use _______________________ many natural resources faster than they can be renewed, replaced, or cleaned up.
32 Consumption TrendsTo support higher quality of life, developed countries use much more of Earth’s resources.Developed nations use ________ of world’s resources, although they make up only _______ of world’s population.This rate of consumption creates more waste and pollution per person than in developing countries.
33 Ecological Footprints Ecological footprints: calculations that show _________________ needed to support one person in a particular countryestimates land used for crops, grazing, forests products, and housingincludes ocean area used to harvest seafoodIncludes forest area needed to absorb air pollution caused by fossil fuelsone way to express the differences in consumption between nations
34 A Sustainable World_____________: condition in which human needs are met in a way that a human population can survive indefinitelyEXAMPLES??Sustainability is a key goal of environmental science!
35 Comprehension CheckPopulation growth can result in what ethical environmental problem, addressed by ecologist Garrett Hardin in “The Tragedy of the Commons?A. the conflict between water resources and industrial growthB. the conflict between forest resources and the lumber companiesC. the conflict between political interests and international energy useD. the conflict between individual interests and the welfare of society
36 Comprehension Check Use this graph to answer questions 6 and 7 6. What was the total population increase between the years 1600 and 1900?A. 0.6 billionB. 0.9 billionC. 1.0 billionD. 1.5 billionIf the rate of growth from had been the same as the rate of growth from , what would the world population have been at the end of the century?A. more than 7 billionB. more than 10 billionC. more than 15 billionD. more than 20 billion
37 Comprehension Check8. Which of the following characterizes the environmental consequences of the current population trend?A. More people mean more housing construction.B. The need for food and resources is growing rapidly.C. The standard of living has risen around the world.D. There is no connection between population growth and environment.