2 Automotive Batteries WHAT AND AUTOMTIVE BATTERY DOES A battery supplies power to the starter and ignition system to start the engine.A battery also supplies the extra power necessary when the vehicle's electrical load exceeds the supply from the charging system.
3 Automotive BatteriesAutomotive batteries acts as a voltage stabilizer in the electrical system.An automotive battery converts chemical energy into electrical energyAn automotive battery evens out voltage spikes and prevents them from damaging other components in the electrical system
4 Automotive Batteries What the standby battery does: Supplies electrical power to critical systems in the event of a power outage.Acts as a voltage stabilizer, to smooth out fluctuations in the electrical generation systems.Temporarily holds large electrical loads as electric utilities switch from one generation system to another.
5 How a Battery is Made How a Battery is Made Batteries are made of five basic components:1. A resilient Plastic container.2. Positive and negative internal plates made of lead.
7 How a Battery is Made3. Plate separators made of porous synthetic material.4. Electrolyte, a dilute solution of sulfuric acid and water better known as battery acid.5. Lead terminals, the connection point between the battery and whatever it powers.
8 How a Battery is MadeMost automotive battery containers and their covers are made of polypropylene.A typical 12-volt car battery, case is divided into six sections, or cells
9 How a Battery is MadeA battery must have positive and negative plates to conduct a charge.Grids or plates are made from lead or an alloy of lead and other metals.
10 How a Battery is MadeA mixture of lead oxide -- which is powdered lead, sulfuric acid and water is applied to the gridsExpander material made of powdered sulfates is added to the paste to produce negative platesThe expander material is not added to the positive plates.
11 How a Battery is MadePasted positive and negative plates must be separated to prevent short circuits.Separators are thin sheets of porous, insulating material used as spacers between the positive and negative plates.
12 How a Battery is MadeFine pores in the separators allow electrical current to flow between the plates while preventing short circuits.
13 How a Battery is MadeA positive plate is paired with a negative plate and a separator to make an elementThere is one element per battery cellElements are dropped into the cells in the battery caseThe cells are connected with a metal that conducts electricity.
14 How a Battery is Made The lead terminals, or posts, are welded on. The battery is then filled with electrolyte - or battery acid -- a mixture of sulfuric acid and water, and the cover is attached.
15 How a Battery is Made After a battery is made its is Checked for leaks.Charged for several hours.Labels added
16 Battery Quiz1. What supplies power to the ignition and the starting systemA. Starter motorB. BatteryC. AlternatorD. None of the above
17 Battery Quiz2. What component acts as a voltage stabilizer in the electrical system?1. Voltage regulator2. Current regulator3. Battery4. Alternator
18 Battery Quiz 3. How many cell is in an automotive battery A. 12 B. 6. D. 2
19 Battery Quiz4. Each cell of an automotive battery will supply how many volts?A. 2B. 4C. 10D. 12
20 Battery Quiz 5. A mixture of sulfuric acid and water is called: A. Battery liquidB. Battery activatorC. Electrical chargeD. Electrolyte
21 Battery Quiz 6. There is how many elements element per battery cell? D. 6
22 Battery Quiz7. A battery must have ______________ to conduct electricity.A. Negative plates onlyB. Positive plates onlyC. Positive and Neutral platesD. Positive and Negative plates
23 Battery Quiz8. Most automotive battery containers and their covers are made of:A. SteelB. WoodC. Soft plasticD. polypropylene
24 Battery Quiz 9. After a battery is made its is: A. Charged for several hoursB. Check for leaksC. Has labels addedD. All the above
25 Battery Quiz10. A _________ supplies the extra power necessary when the vehicle's electrical load exceeds the supply from the charging system.A. AlternatorB. StarterC. Fuel cellD. Battery
26 Battery OperationA battery convert chemical energy into electrical energyWhen an atom loses and electron it become a positively charge IonWhen am atom gains an electron it become a negatively charge ion.Battery produce Voltage and Amperage.Voltage is defined and electrical pressureAmperage is defined as electron flow from one atom to another.
27 Battery OperationWhen you have and abundance of negatively charge ions and a abundance of positively charged ions connected together in an electrical circuit current will begin to flow.The larger the difference between the positive ions and the negative ions the greater the voltage or electrical pressure difference.The greater the flow electrons from one atom to another the greater the current flow
28 Battery Operation Battery have two different ratings. 1. Cold cranking amperage (CCA): Is the ability of a battery to maintain 7.3 volts for 30 seconds at 0 degrees F2. Reserve Capacity (RC): Is the ability of a battery to supply 10.5 volts at 25 amps at 80 degrees F.
29 Battery Operation A battery stores electricity for future use. A battery develops voltage from the chemical reaction produced when two unlike materials, such as the positive and negative plates, are immersed in electrolyte, a solution of sulfuric acid and water.In a typical lead-acid battery, the voltage is approximately 2 volts per cell, for a total of 12 volts.
30 Battery OperationElectricity flows from the battery as soon as there is a circuit between the positive and negative terminals. This happens when any load that needs electricity, such as the radio, is connected to the battery.
32 Battery OperationWhen a battery is discharge the plates have the same amount of electrical charge.As a battery discharges, the lead plates become more chemically alike, the acid becomes weaker and less voltage is produced.
33 Battery OperationYou can recharge a discharged battery by feeding electrical current back into the battery.A full charge restores the chemical difference between the plates and leaves the battery ready to deliver its full power.
35 Batteries SPECIFIC GRAVITY Specific gravity means exact weight. A "Hydrometer" or a "Refractometer" compares the exact weight of electrolyte with that of water.Strong electrolyte in a charged battery is heavier than weak electrolyte in a discharged battery.By weight, the electrolyte in a fully charged battery is about 36% acid and 64% water.
36 Batteries The specific gravity of water is 1.000. Acid is times heavier than water, so its specific gravity isThe electrolyte mixture of water and acid has a specific gravity of 1.270, usually stated as "twelve and seventy."
38 Battery OperationThis unique process of discharging and charging in the lead-acid battery means that energy can be discharged and restored over and over again.This is what's known as the cycling ability in a battery.
39 Battery Quiz 1. You can recharge a discharged battery by: A. Turning the headlights onB. Replacing the electricity that has been removedC. Removing the positive battery cableD. Replacing the Negative battery cable
40 Battery Quiz2. Technician A says a fully charge battery should have a specific gravity of:ABCD
41 Battery Quiz 3. What tool is used to measure battery specific gravity? A. MilometerB. MicrometerC. KilometerD. Hydrometer
42 Battery Quiz4. Electrolyte is a mixture of sulfuric acid and _____________ :A. HydrogenB. CarbonC. Sulfuric carbonD. Water
43 Battery Quiz5. This unique process of discharging and charging a lead-acid battery is called:A. DischargingB. CyclingC. OverchargingD. None of the above
44 BatteriesBattery are rated in both cold cranking amps and reserve capacity.Cold Cranking Amps is the amount of amperage a battery can supply at 0 Degrees while maintaining 9.6 volts for 30 secondsReserve capacity: The amount of time a battery can supply 10 volts at 25 amps when not being charged
45 Batteries When a battery becomes discharged it must be recharged. A battery can be charged by the vehicle alternators or by an external battery chargerWhen connecting or disconnecting a battery charger care should be taken not to create a spark.
46 BatteriesWhen connecting or disconnecting a battery charger care should be taken not to create a spark.Hydrogen and oxygen can explodeSpark will cause a battery to explodeThe gasses created during charging are explosive
47 BatteriesWhen charging a battery always connect the positive cable first and the negative cable lastWhen removing battery cables disconnect the Negative cable first and the Positive cable last.Most automotive manufactures recommend disconnecting a battery before its recharged.