Solubility – the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature. Saturated Solution – solution that contains all the solute it can at a given temperature. Unsaturated Solution – solution that contains less than the saturated amount of solute. Supersaturated Solution – solution that contains more solute than it could normally hold.
Every compound has its own solubility curve. Typically, when heated, solubility will increase
Acids produce hydrogen ions HCl H + + Cl - Bases produce hydroxide ions NaOH Na + + OH - H+H+ OH -
Acids donate protons (+) Bases accept protons (+) Conjugate acid – particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion Conjugate bases – particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion Conjugate acid-base pair – 2 substances that are related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion ◦ Ex: NH 3 and NH 4 +
HCl (g) + H 2 O (l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) AcidConj. AcidConj. Base Base Acid + Base Conj. Base + Conj. Acid NH 3(g) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Acid BaseConj. BaseConj. Acid
Taste sour pH from 0-6.99 Has H + at the beginning of the formula Produce H 2(g) when reacting with most metals Neutralize bases Conducts electricity (because they contain electrolytes) Turns litmus paper red
HClhydrochloric acid HBrhydrobromic acid HIhydroiodic acid HNO 3 nitric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid HClO 4 perchloric acid The stronger an acid, the weaker its conjugate base and vice versa.
Taste bitter pH between 7.01-14 Have OH - ions Feels slippery Neutralize acids Turns litmus paper blue
LiOHlithium hydroxide NaOHsodium hydroxide KOHpotassium hydroxide RbOHrubidium hydroxide CsOHcesium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 calcium hydroxide Sr(OH) 2 strontium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 magnesium hydroxide ◦ Milk of magnesia, it is not completely soluble, but what does dissolve is a strong base.
An unknown concentration of acid or base can be determined by measuring the amount of known acid or base that will neutralize the unknown. An indicator changes color when the “end point” or neutralization occurs
Standard solution ◦ Solution in which the concentration is known End point ◦ The point at which equivalent amounts of reactants are present
For one to one ratios For non one to one ratios ◦ Need to calculate a mole ratio.
If 15.0 mL of 0.500M NaOH is used to neutralize 25 mL of HCl, what is the concentration of the acid? NaOH + HCl H 2 O + NaCl Since the ratio is 1:1, use M a V a =M b V b (0.500M)(15.0mL)=M b (25.0mL) M b =0.300M HCl
Can absorb moderate amounts of acid or base without a significant change in pH Consists of a weak acid and its salt or a weak base and its salt. Example ◦ Acetic acid: HC 2 H 3 O 2 ◦ Sodium acetate: NaC 2 H 3 O 2
HAH + + A - HA H + + A - Strong Acid Weak Acid Lots of H +, very little HA Lots of HA, very little H +