Presentation on theme: "Ch 9: General Principles of Bank Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch 9: General Principles of Bank Management How the bank manages its assets and liabilities to earn the highest possible profits?The manager of the bank has 4 primary concerns:Liquidity management.Asset management.Liability management.Capital adequacy management.Liquidity management and the role of reserve: How the bank deals with deposit outflows? This is when deposits are lost because depositors make withdrawals and demand payment.
2 Example: - RRR (10%), Bank ONE initial balance sheet: Assets LiabilitiesReserves (RR=10,ER=10) DepositsLoans CapitalSecuritiesThe required reserve is (10), but total reserves = (20), therefore, the bank has excess reserves = (10)
3 If a deposit outflow of (10) occurs, the bank’s balance sheet becomes: Assets LiabilitiesReserves (RR=9,ER=1) 10 DepositsLoans CapitalSecurities 10
4 The bank loses (10) of deposits AND (10) of reserves. But since the total amount of deposits = (90), andRRR = (10%), Required reserve = (9), and Excess reserve =(1)If the bank has excess reserves, a deposits= outflow does not necessitate changes in other parts of its balance sheet.
5 But what if the bank holds insufficient excess reserves? Example:The bank holds no excess reserves: Bank ONEAssets LiabilitiesRR 10 Deposits 100Loans 90 capitalSecurities 10The required reserve is (10), and total reserves = (10), therefore, the bank holds no excess reserves = ER = (0)
6 If (10) deposit outflow occurs: Assets LiabilitiesRR -9 DepositsLoans CapitalSecurities 10There is a decline in deposits and reserves by (10)The reserves = (0), this is a problem since the required reserve must = (9: 10%×90)The bank has NO RESERVE!
7 Pays interest = Federal Fund Rate To eliminate this problem, the bank has 4 options: 1. Borrowing from other banks (FED), or borrowing from corporation.The bank’s balance sheet becomes:Assets LiabilitiesReserves 9 DepositsLoans 90 Borrowing from other banks or corp. 9Securities 10 CapitalPays interest = Federal Fund Rate
9 Pays interest = Discount rate. 3. Borrowing from the Fed:Assets LiabilitiesReserves 9 DepositsLoans 90 Discount loans from the Fed 10Securities Capital Pays interest = Discount rate.
10 4. Calling in or selling loans: Reducing its loans by (9) and depositing the (9):Assets LiabilitiesReserves 9 Deposits 90Loans Capital 10 Securities 10This solution is costly:May not be able to renew loans of some clientsSell loans at lower values
11 This shows why a bank holds excess reserves though reserves pay no interest: to face deposits outflow.Excess reserves are insurance against the cost associated with deposits outflows.The higher the costs associated with deposit outflows, the more excess reserves bank will want to hold.
12 2. Asset ManagementWhen managing its assets (to maximize profits), the bank must:A Seek the highest returns on loans and securities,B Reduce risk,C Enough provisions for liquidity (holding liquid assets).
13 To accomplish these goals, four basic ways: 1- Find borrowers who will pay high interest rates but unlikely to default (Screening to reduce adverse selection problem).2- Purchase securities with high returns and low risk.3- Diversification of assets: purchase different type of assets, diversify borrowers.4- Manage liquidity to satisfy reserves requirements.
14 3- Liability Management The use of liabilities in the creation of reserves and liquidity (Assets):Before:No interest paid on checkable deposits, therefore, no competition for deposits between banks.Banks rarely used overnight loans
15 After:Expansion of overnight loansDevelopment of new financial instrumentsThe flexibility in liability management means: the bank need not to depend on checkable deposits as the primary source of funds (liabilities).
16 4- Capital Adequacy Management Capital= Bank’s net worth= Total assets – Total liabilitiesMaintaining the appropriate capital(net worth) to prevent bank failure,maintain owners’ returns,and meet central bank regulations.
17 1- Prevent Bank Failure: Example (1):Consider two banks, one with capital to assets ratio of 10% and the other with 4%. High Capital BankAssets Liabilities Reserves 10 Deposits 90 Loans 90 Bank Capital 10Low Capital BankAssets Liabilities Reserves Deposits 96 Loans 90 Bank Capital 4 If the two banks lose % 5 million of their loans, their assets and capital will decline too by the same amount.
18 The new balance sheets become as follows: High Capital BankAssets Liabilities Reserves 10 Deposits 90 Loans 85 Bank Capital 5 Low Capital BankReserves 10 Deposits 96 Loans 85 Bank Capital -1 The high capital bank is still in a good situation because its net worth (capital) is still positive ($5 million).
19 The low capital bank is in a bad situation because its net worth is negative (-$1 million) The value of its assets is less than its liabilities, therefore it is insolvent (bankrupt):It does not have enough assets to pay off holders of its liabilities (creditors).When a bank becomes insolvent, the government closes it.
20 2- Bank Capital Affects Returns to Equity Holders: Bank owners need measures of bank profitability to know if the bank is managed well or not:A. Return on Assets (ROA):ROA = Net profit after taxes / AssetsThe ROA shows how efficiently a bank is being run by indicating how much profits are generated on average by each dollar of assets.
21 B. Return on Equity (ROE): ROE = net profit after taxes / equity capitalThe ROE shows how much the bank earns on equity investment.
22 C. Equity Multiplier (EM): EM = assets / equity capitalIt is the amount of assets per dollar of equity capital. It shows the direct relationship between ROA and ROE: Net profit after taxes / Equity capital =(net profit after taxes / assets) X (assets / equity capital)ROE = (ROA) X (EM)
23 ROE = (ROA) X (EM)This formula show what happens to the return on equity when a bank holds a smaller amount of capital (equity) for a given amount of assets.
24 Example The high capital bank has an EM = 10 (100 / 10) = 10 The low capital bank has an EM = 25 (100 / 4) = 25If ROA is 1%, then:ROE for the high capital bank = 1% X 10 = 10% ROE for the low capital bank = 1% X 25= 25%
25 Equity holders of the low capital bank are happier because they have a return twice higher. Thus, bank owners don't like holding a lot of capital (because it reduces ROE(
26 Result: Given the ROA, the lower the bank capital, the higher the ROE Result: Given the ROA, the lower the bank capital, the higher the ROE. This show that there is a trade-off between safety and returns.Tradeoff: High bank capital reduces possibility of bankruptcy, but lowers (ROE)
27 3- Bank Capital Requirements: Banks hold capital because they are required by law to do so.
28 Managing Credit RiskThe bank must make good loans that are paid back (No default)Screening and Monitoring,Long-Term Customer RelationLoan commitmentsCollateral and Compensating BalancesCredit rationing
29 Screening and the problem of Adverse Selection in loan market: When bad credit risk (most likely to default) are the ones who try to get loans.Investors with risky assets are the most eager to obtain loans, but are the least desirable borrowers.Must collect information about potential borrowers.
30 Moral Hazard in loan market: borrowers may engage in undesirable activities from the lender’s point of view.
31 Managing Interest-Rate Risk High volatility in interest rates makes banks exposed to interest- rate risk:The risk of earnings and returns that is associated with changes in interest rates.
32 Example: First National Bank Assets Liabilities Rate-sensitive Assets Rate-sensitive Liabilities Fixed -rate Assets Fixed-rate Liabilities$ 20 million of assets are rate sensitive, while $80 million with fixed rates.$ 50 million of liabilities are rate sensitive, while $ 50 million with fixed rates.
33 If interest rate rises from 10% to 15% (∆ 5%): income on assets rises by $1 million:∆ in income = ∆ in interest X rate sensitive assets = 5% X $ 20 million = $ 1 millionpayments on liabilities rise by $2.5 million:∆ in cost of liabilities = ∆ in interest X rate sensitive liabilities =5% X $ 50 million = $ 2.5 millionThe bank profit's decline by $1.5 million ($1 - $2.5)
34 However, if interest rate falls by 5%, profit rises by $1.5 million. Result:If a bank has more rate-sensitive liabilities than assets, a rise in interest rates reduces bank profits, while a decline in interest rates raises profits.
35 Gap and Duration Analysis: 1- Gap Analysis:The sensitivity of bank profits to changes in interest rates can be measured directly using gap analysis by:(Rate sensitive Assets - Rate sensitive liabilities)In the example above, the gap equals $30 million($20 - $50)
36 By multiplying the change in interest rate by the gap, we obtain the effect on profits: ∆ in profit = 5% X - $30 million = - $1.5 million.
37 2- Duration AnalysisAn alternative measure of interest rate risk is duration analysis, which examines the sensitivity of the market value of the bank's total assets and liabilities to changes in interest rates.
38 Duration analysis uses the average duration of assets and liabilities to see how the net worth responds to a change in interest rates.
39 (- % ∆ in interest rate x Duration) To measure the effect of bank's net worth due to a change in interest rate:%∆ in market value=(- % ∆ in interest rate x Duration) Do the same so A-L
40 In the example above, if average duration of assets is three years and liabilities is two years, assets are $100 million,and liabilities are $90 million.
41 If interest rate rises by 5%: Value of assets falls by 15% (- 5% X 3 years)-, or $15 million.Value of liabilities falls by 10%(-5% X 2 years), or $9 million.Or: (-5% X 3 X 100) - (-5% X 2 X 9) = = -6!
42 Net worth falls by $ 6 million, or 6% of assets. However, a 5% decline in interest rates increases net worth by 6% (of total assets)Can you show how?
43 Off-Balance-Sheet Activities This involve activities that affect bank profits, but do not appear on the bank’s balance sheet.Trading financial instruments and generating income from fees and loan sales.
44 1- Loan Sales (Secondary Loan Participation): A contract that sells all or part of the cash stream of a loan therefore, it removes the loan from the bank’s balance sheet.2- Generation of Fee Income:Earned from providing specialized services to customers: foreign exchange trade, mortgage backed security, banker’s acceptance…
45 3- Trading Activities and Risk management Techniques: International BankingTrading in financial marketsSpeculationsRisky activities: Insolvency.