Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Lesson 4. Students will: Explore how all the living and nonliving parts of an environment interact. Describe how the living organisms interact."— Presentation transcript:
Students will: Explore how all the living and nonliving parts of an environment interact. Describe how the living organisms interact with each other and with non-living parts of an environment.
Ecology: The study of how living and non-living things interact.
Ecosystem: The living and non-living things in an environment and all their interactions.
Each ecosystem has its own community. The community is the living parts of the ecosystem. A terrarium’s community can have small plants and animals. A desert community includes beautiful cacti and deadly scorpions.
Communities can be divided into different populations. A population is made of only one type of organism.
Each organism’s home is called a habitat. A whale’s habitat is the ocean. A termite’s habitat is a termite nest.
What makes one ecosystem different from another? In many cases water is the key. Only a small number of species of plants and animals can survive with little water.
Another important resource that can affect an ecosystem is soil. Areas with soil rich in nutrients can support many plants. Few plants grow in areas with soil that does not have many nutrients.
The types of plants and animals that live in a particular ecosystem depend on a combination of these things. A woodland forest has enough rich soil and enough water for many grasses to grow. However, a woodland forest does not have enough sunshine which is needed by most types of grasses. Why? The sun’s light is blocked by the trees and the forest floor is dark.
Climate differences produce a variety of ecosystems. Climate is the long-term weather pattern of an area.
Long, dark, and very cold winters. Few trees. Ground is frozen for most of the year, and trees can’t grow. Not easy to survive in these very cold places. Most tundra regions are in the Arctic. There is a small amount of tundra on parts of the Antarctic that are not covered with ice. Tundra is also found on mountains at high altitudes and it’s called alpine tundra.
In the summer, energy from the Sun thaws the top surface of the ground. Plants grow, but trees can't because the ground is frozen a few inches down. Lots of animals go to the tundra in the summer. Some even stay through the cold winter!
It is located south of the tundra region. Very cold winters & cool summers. More rain or snow falls than in the tundra. Many fir and spruce trees grow in this region. Yellowstone, Sequoia, and Yosemite are national parks in the Taiga regions of the United States.
Cold winters & hot summers. More rain or snow falls than in the taiga. Rich soil. Grassland biomes are large, rolling terrains of grasses, flowers and herbs. We may know this areas as the “prairie.”
Mild winters and summers. Plenty of rain or snow. Tree lose their leaves in winter. Located in the eastern United States, Canada, Europe, parts of Russia, China, and Japan.
The word "deciduous" means exactly what the leaves on these trees do: change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back again in the spring.
The ocean biome is the largest of all the biomes. Approximately 70% of the earth is covered in water and most of that is saltwater. Scientists divide the ocean into different biomes depending on the temperature and amount of light. The ocean is the only biome where insect do not live.
Many organisms live where the water level changes from high tide to low tide. The plants and animals that live in this biome have interesting adaptations. Some organisms make the shallow waters of the shore their home. Others live on land, but have adjusted to higher levels of salt in their environment.
This area gets plenty of light. It is rich in nutrients and home to many populations. Clams, crabs, barnacles, flounders, mussels, oysters, sea cucumbers and sting rays live close to shore
Ecosystems change as the amount of light decreases with depth. Ninety percent of the ocean is in the midnight zone. It is entirely dark—there is no light. The water pressure is extreme. The temperature is near freezing. Because there is no light in this zone, some animals don't have eyes. There are no plants in this zone.
Many habitats are along the shore and river bottom. Although there are many rivers and streams, these sources of running water account for a very small portion of the earth's total surface, just.3%.
Many habitats are at the shore, on the surface water, and under the water. Some lakes are the source for some rivers. Important rivers, most often, originate from lakes. Some rivers end in lakes. Lakes can range in size from small ponds to huge bodies of water such the Great Lakes in the U.S.
Within a community, each member of a team has its own job to do. There are three different types of team members: Producer Consumer Decomposers
Producers are important to many parts of the ecosystem. Without producers there would be no way for other organisms to survive. Consumers and decomposers would not have a valuable source of energy.
You can tell most producers by their green color (chloroplasts). Producers capture light energy from the Sun and transform it into food. They make food by using water, carbon dioxide in the air, and the Sun’s energy. Producers use only some of the food they make and the rest is stored.
Other members of the community eat producers or organisms that have eaten producers. Without producers there would be no way for other organisms to survive. Consumers and decomposers would not have a source of energy.
Producers also affect nonliving parts of the ecosystem. Plant roots hold the soil in place. Other producers provide shelter for other consumers and producers. Most producers contribute to the air that we breathe.
Producers are only the beginning of the food chain. A food chain is the steps in which organisms get the food they need to survive. Producers make their own food. Consumers and decomposers must get food from producers or other consumers.
Organisms that eat food are consumers. They use the food that producers make, or they eat other organisms. Animals and some one- celled organisms are consumer. In order to stay alive, consumers must get food from other organisms.
There are three types of consumers. Herbivores: consumers that eat only plants. Carnivores: consumers that eat only meat. Omnivores: consumers that eat both plants and animals.
When plants and animals die they become food for decomposers. Decomposers break down living and dead matter into simple chemicals that they use for food. The chemicals left behind by decomposers are recycled (used over and over again. Sowbugs are usually the first decomposers under a rotting tree stump.
They can include bacteria, and some kinds of fungi which includes mold and yeast. Can also include worms and snails.
It shows how energy is passed from the Sun to producers, consumers, and decomposers. In any ecosystem many food chains overlap. Different food chains may include some of the same organisms. Several consumers may all eat the same kind of plant or animals. When this happens, the food chains form a “Food Web.”