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Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders

2 Anatomy and Physiology
Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism

3 Anatomy and Physiology
Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals Storage of nutrients

4 Anatomy and Physiology
Gallbladder stores bile until needed Pancreas produces and excretes most of the intestinal enzymes

5 Common Signs and Symptoms
Liver Disease Jaundice Pain is the most common symptom

6 Diagnostic Tests Liver function tests measure bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase Ultrasound, X-rays, CAT scan Biopsy Blood tests to measure pancreatic function

7 Liver Diseases Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver
Causes include chemical actions of drugs, toxic substances, chronic alcoholism, group of viruses Viral hepatitis is the most prevalent

8 Liver Diseases Hepatitis Symptoms Jaundice Malaise Anorexia Myalgia

9 Liver Diseases Hepatitis Symptoms Fever Abdominal pain
Dark-colored urine (hepatomegaly) Clay or light-colored stools

10 Liver Diseases Hepatitis Treatment Prevention Rest Good nutrition
Good hygiene Special care when handling needles and body fluids

11 Liver Diseases Viral Hepatitis occurs in five types
A, B, C, D, E Hepatitis A: benign; spread by oral-fecal contact Hepatitis B: formerly called “serum hepatitis” spread by blood, urine, feces, saliva, and semen

12 Liver Diseases Hepatitis C: spread by blood or sex
Hepatitis D: “delta virus” requires presence of hepatitis B to replicate Hepatitis E: spread through fecal-oral contact, commonly due to water contamination

13 Liver Diseases Cirrhosis Chronic, irreversible, degenerative
Replacement of normal liver cells with nonfunctioning scar tissue called “hobnail liver”

14 Liver Diseases Cirrhosis Most common cause is chronic alcoholism
Symptoms Loss of appetite Nausea Indigestion Weakness and weight loss

15 Liver Disease Liver Cancer Primary and benign tumors of liver are rare
Usually discovered late or end stage Diagnosis confirmed by biopsy Treatment may involve surgery, radiation, chemotherapy

16 Gallbladder Diseases Cholecystitis
Inflammation of gallbladder usually caused by obstruction of bile due to gallstone Diagnosis is made by ultrasound, cholecystogram

17 Gallbladder Diseases Cholecystitis Symptoms
Mild to severe RUQ pain Nausea and vomiting after eating Treatment surgical excision

18 Gallbladder Diseases Cholelithiasis
Gallstones in gallbladder or bile ducts Symptoms Nausea Vomiting RUQ pain following meals with fat

19 Gallbladder Diseases Cholelithiasis
Risk factors include excessive weight, increasing age, female

20 Gallbladder Diseases Cholelithiasis 5 F’s of cholelithiasis Female
Fair complexion Fat Fertile Forty or older

21 Pancreas Diseases Pancreatitis - Inflammation of pancreas Symptoms
Severe abdominal pain radiating to back Nausea Vomiting Diaphoresis Tachycardia

22 Pancreas Diseases Pancreatitis
Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are similar to acute Diagnosis is based on high blood amylase Treatment and prognosis depends on cause

23 Pancreas Diseases Pancreas Cancer
Usually adenocarcinoma occurring in head of pancreas Symptoms: Abdominal pain Back pain Nausea Vomiting

24 Pancreas Diseases Pancreas Cancer Symptoms Loss of appetite Weakness
Jaundice Fatigue

25 Pancreas Diseases Pancreas Cancer Diagnosis confirmed by biopsy
Treatment Surgical resection Radiation and chemotherapy

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