3 Properties of matterProperty – any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and to distinguish it from other types of matter Each substance has a unique set of physical and chemical properties.
4 Properties of MatterExtensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present.VolumeMassEnergy Content (think Calories!)Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present.Melting pointBoiling pointDensity
5 Properties of matterPhysical Properties Physical Properties are measured without changing the substance. e.g., color, density, odor, melting point Chemical Properties Chemical Properties describe how substances react or change to form different substances e.g., rusting of an iron nail at room temperature, sodium reacts violently with water, radioactive decay, lack of reactivity
6 Phase DifferencesSolid – definite volume and shape; particles packed in fixed positions.Liquid – definite volume but indefinite shape; particles close together but not in fixed positionsGas – neither definite volume nor definite shape; particles are at great distances from one anotherPlasma – high temperature, ionized phase of matter as found on the sun.
12 Classifying Matter:Types of SubstancesCompound: A substance with a constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes.Element: A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.
13 Separation of a Compound The Electrolysis of water Compounds must be separated by chemical means.With the application of electricity, water can be separated into its elementsReactant ProductsWater Hydrogen + Oxygen2 H2O H O2