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mmcl2003 1 Give the name beginning of the hydrocarbons with 1 to 8 carbons answer 1 = meth5 = pent 2 = eth6 = hex 3 = prop7 = hept 4 = but 8 = oct

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mmcl2003 A family of compounds with the same GENERAL FORMULA and similar chemical properties. answer 2 HOMOLOGOUS SERIES What is a HOMOLOGOUS SERIES?

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mmcl2003 SATURATED What are SATURATED hydrocarbons? Hydrocarbons where all the carbon to carbon bonds are SINGLE covalent bonds answer 3

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mmcl2003 What is the GENERAL FORMULA for the ALKANES? C n H 2n+2 answer 4

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mmcl2003 Alkanes What are the Alkanes ? A homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H 2n+2 answer 5

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mmcl2003 CYCLOALKANES What are the CYCLOALKANES? A homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H 2n Some of the carbons are joined in a ring answer 6

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mmcl2003 Alkenes What are the Alkenes? A homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H 2n Must contain C=C answer 7

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mmcl2003 When CRUDE OIL is distilled what is the problem concerning the amounts of fractions obtained? In general more long chain hydrocarbons are obtained than needed and fewer shorter chain hydrocarbons are obtained than needed answer 8

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mmcl2003 What is the connection between the boiling point of alkanes and their number of carbons? Boiling point increases as the number of carbons increases answer 9

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mmcl2003 What is the word equation for the combustion of alkanes? alkane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water answer 10

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mmcl2003 Give examples of uses for ALKANES Methane – natural gas Propane – bottled gas Octane – petrol answer 11

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mmcl2003 GENERAL FORMULA E What is the GENERAL FORMULA for the ALKENES? C n H 2n answer 12

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mmcl2003 ISOMERS What are ISOMERS? Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula. answer 13

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mmcl2003 UNSATURATED What are UNSATURATED hydrocarbons? Hydrocarbons where there is at least one carbon to carbon DOUBLE covalent bond answer 14

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mmcl2003 How can saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons be distinguished by experiment? Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as alk e nes quickly decolourise bromine. Saturated hydrocarbons such as alk a nes and cycloalk a nes slowly decolourise bromine. answer 15

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mmcl2003 addition What type of hydrocarbons take place in addition reactions? ALKENES Unsaturated hydrocarbons answer 16

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mmcl2003 How can an alkene be converted to the corresponding alkane? Addition reaction of the alkene with HYDROGEN converts it to an alkane. answer 17

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mmcl2003 What do alkanes, alkenes and cycloalkanes have in common ? They are all hydrocarbons so burn in a plentiful supply of air to produce carbon dioxide and water answer 18

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mmcl2003 GENERAL FORMULA What is the GENERAL FORMULA for the CYCLOALKANES? C n H 2n answer 19

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mmcl2003 What is an addition reaction? In an addition reaction a molecule eg Br 2 adds one atom to either side of a carbon to carbon double bond answer 20

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mmcl2003 Write a formula equation for the addition reaction between ethene and bromine? C 2 H 4 + Br 2 C 2 H 4 Br 2 answer 21

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mmcl2003 What is catalytic cracking? A process for breaking long chain molecules into shorter more useful molecules answer 22

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mmcl2003 How is catalytic cracking carried out? By heating in the presence of a catalyst eg aluminium oxide. The catalyst speeds up the process and allows it to take place at a lower temperature answer 23

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mmcl2003 What is the main use for the small unsaturated molecules (eg ethene) obtained by the cracking of long chain hydrocarbons? Small unsaturated molecules are used to make plastics answer 24

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mmcl2003 Apart from the product molecules being smaller, what is different about one of the products obtained in cracking? One of the molecules must be unsaturated (often ethene). This is due to the number of hydrogen atoms available. answer 25

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