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Hazard - Inadequate Wiring

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Presentation on theme: "Hazard - Inadequate Wiring"— Presentation transcript:

1 National Electric Code (NEC ) requires voltage drop to be no more than 3% of source voltage.

2 Hazard - Inadequate Wiring
Hazard - wire too small for the current Example - portable tool with an extension cord that has a wire too small for the tool The tool will draw more current than the cord can handle, causing overheating and a possible fire without tripping the circuit breaker The circuit breaker could be the right size for the circuit but not for the smaller-wire extension cord Wire Gauge WIRE An electrical hazard exists when the wire is too small a gauge for the current it will carry. Normally, the circuit breaker in a circuit is matched to the wire size. However, in older wiring, branch lines to permanent ceiling light fixtures could be wired with a smaller gauge than the supply cable. Note that wire-gauge size is inversely related to the diameter of the wire. For example, a No. 12 flexible cord has a larger diameter wire than a No. 14 flexible cord. Choose a wire size that can handle the total current. Remember: The larger the gauge number, the smaller the wire! American Wire Gauge (AWG) Wire size Handles up to #10 AWG 30 amps #12 AWG 25 amps #14 AWG 18 amps #16 AWG 13 amps Wire gauge measures wires ranging in size from number 36 to 0 American wire gauge (AWG)

3 Percents as Fractions 3% Equals 3/100 “Percent” means “Per Hundred”

4 Percents to Fractions to Decimals
3% 3 / 100 3/100 means 3 divided by 100 A short-cut when dividing by 100 is to move the decimal point two places to the left

5 3% of 120 volts 3% of 120 = 0.03 * 120 = 3.6 volts The word “of” indicates multiplication

6 3% of 240 volts 3% of 240 = 0.03 * 240 = 7.2 volts Remember… 3% equals 0.03 And “of” means multiplication

7 Control – Use the Correct Wire
Wire used depends on operation, building materials, electrical load, and environmental factors Use fixed cords rather than flexible cords Use the correct extension cord (a)(2)(ii)(J) The OSHA standard requires flexible cords to be rated for hard or extra-hard usage. These ratings are to be indelibly marked approximately every foot of the cord. Since deterioration occurs more rapidly in cords which are not rugged enough for construction conditions, the National Electric Code and OSHA have specified the types of cords to use in a construction environment. This rule designates the types of cords that must be used for various applications including portable tools, appliances, temporary and portable lights. The cords are designated HARD and EXTRA HARD SERVICE. Examples of HARD SERVICE designation types include S, ST, SO, STO, SJ, SJO, SJT, & SJTO. Extension cords must be durably marked as per (g)(2)(ii) with one of the HARD or EXTRA HARD SERVICE designation letters, size and number of conductors. Must be 3-wire type and designed for hard or extra-hard use

8 Hazard – Defective Cords & Wires
Plastic or rubber covering is missing Damaged extension cords & tools Extension cords may have damaged insulation. Sometimes the insulation inside an electrical tool or appliance is damaged. When insulation is damaged, exposed metal parts may become energized if a live wire inside touches them. Electric hand tools that are old, damaged, or misused may have damaged insulation inside. If you touch damaged power tools or other equipment, you will receive a shock. You are more likely to receive a shock if the tool is not grounded or double-insulated.

9 Hazard – Damaged Cords Cords can be damaged by:
Aging Door or window edges Staples or fastenings Abrasion from adjacent materials Activity in the area Improper use can cause shocks, burns or fire Reference (a)(2)(ii)(I) The normal wear and tear on extension and flexible cords at your site can loosen or expose wires, creating hazardous conditions. Cords that are not 3-wire type, not designed for hard-usage, or that have been modified, increase your risk of contacting electrical current.

10 Control – Cords & Wires Insulate live wires Check before use
Use only cords that are 3-wire type Use only cords marked for hard or extra-hard usage Use only cords, connection devices, and fittings equipped with strain relief Remove cords by pulling on the plugs, not the cords Cords not marked for hard or extra-hard use, or which have been modified, must be taken out of service immediately Insulation is the most common manner of guarding electrical energy. Extension cords must be 3-wire type so they may be grounded, and to permit grounding of any tools or equipment connected to them. Extension cords when exposed to "normal" construction use can experience rapid deterioration. When this happens, conductors with energized bare wires can be exposed. Conductors can break or come loose from their terminal screws, specifically the equipment grounding conductor. If that occurs, the equipment grounding for the tool in use is lost.

11 Permissible Use of Flexible Cords
DO NOT use flexible wiring where frequent inspection would be difficult or where damage would be likely. Flexible cords must not be . . . run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors; run through doorways, windows, or similar openings (unless physically protected); hidden in walls, ceilings, floors, conduit or other raceways. Other use examples: Elevator cables Wiring of cranes and hoists Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are designed to permit removal for maintenance and repair DO NOT use flexible wiring in situations where frequent inspection would be difficult, where damage would be likely, or where long-term electrical supply is needed. Flexible cords cannot be used as a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure. Flexible cords must not be . . . run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors; run through doorways, windows, or similar openings (unless physically protected); attached to building surfaces (except with a tension take-up device within 6 feet of the supply end); hidden in walls, ceilings, or floors; or hidden in conduit or other raceways. Stationary equipment-to facilitate interchange

12 Grounding Grounding creates a low-resistance path from a tool to the earth to disperse unwanted current. When a short or lightning occurs, energy flows to the ground, protecting you from electrical shock, injury and death. Grounding is a secondary method of preventing electrical shock. Grounded electrical systems are usually connected to a grounding rod that is placed 6-8 feet deep into the earth. Grounded - connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth. Grounded, effectively (Over 600 volts, nominal.) Permanently connected to earth through a ground connection of sufficiently low impedance and having sufficient ampacity that ground fault current which may occur cannot build up to voltages dangerous to personnel. Grounded conductor. A system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded. Grounding conductor. A conductor used to connect equipment or the grounded circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode or electrodes.

13 Hazard – Improper Grounding
Tools plugged into improperly grounded circuits may become energized Broken wire or plug on extension cord Some of the most frequently violated OSHA standards The most frequently violated OSHA electrical regulation is improper grounding of equipment and circuitry. The metal parts of an electrical wiring system that we touch (switch plates, ceiling light fixtures, conduit, etc.) should be grounded and at 0 volts. If the system is not grounded properly, these parts may become energized. Metal parts of motors, appliances, or electronics that are plugged into improperly grounded circuits may be energized. When a circuit is not grounded properly, a hazard exists because unwanted voltage cannot be safely eliminated. If there is no safe path to ground for fault currents, exposed metal parts in damaged appliances can become energized. Extension cords may not provide a continuous path to ground because of a broken ground wire or plug. Electrical systems are often grounded to metal water pipes that serve as a continuous path to ground. If plumbing is used as a path to ground for fault current, all pipes must be made of conductive material (a type of metal). Many electrocutions and fires occur because (during renovation or repair) parts of metal plumbing are replaced with plastic pipe, which does not conduct electricity.

14 Control – Ground Tools & Equipment
Ground power supply systems, electrical circuits, and electrical equipment Frequently inspect electrical systems to insure path to ground is continuous Inspect electrical equipment before use Don’t remove ground prongs from tools or extension cords Ground exposed metal parts of equipment A typical extension cord grounding system has four components: a third wire in the cord, called a ground wire; a three-prong plug with a grounding prong on one end of the cord; a three-wire, grounding-type receptacle at the other end of the cord; and a properly grounded outlet. Two kinds of grounds are required by the standard: 1. Service or system ground. In this instance, one wire, called the neutral conductor or grounded conductor, is grounded. In an ordinary low-voltage circuit, the white (or gray) wire is grounded at the generator or transformer and again at the service entrance of the building. This type of ground is primarily designed to protect machines, tools, and insulation against damage. 2. For enhanced worker protection, an additional ground, called the equipment ground, must be furnished by providing another path from the tool or machine through which the current can flow to the ground. This additional ground safeguards the electric equipment operator if a malfunction causes the metal frame of the tool to become energized.

15 Voltage Drop Formula K = constant 12 ohms is the constant for copper that is mil thick at 86˚F I = Current Flow in amps L = Length of Wire in feet ACM= Circular Mil Area in Circular Mils

16 Wire Gauge & CMA Gauge (AWG or kcmil) Circular Mil Area 1620 2580 4110
6530 10380 16510 18 16 14 12 10 8

17 Using Voltage Drop Formula
Problem: What We Know: There is an extension cord that measures 25 ft. and has a current draw of 5 amps. If the cord is 18 gauge, what is the voltage drop? K = 12 ohms I = 5 amps L = 25 ft CMA = 1620 CM (refer to previous table)

18 Using Voltage Drop Formula
State the formula Plug in the known values Calculate Check for acceptability – since 1.85 volts is less than 3.6, this is acceptable for 120 volt circuit

19 Using Voltage Drop Formula
Problem #2: What We Know: There is an extension cord that measures 150 ft. and has a current draw of 5 amps. If the cord is 18 gauge, what is the voltage drop? K = 12 I = 5 amps L = 150 ft CMA = 1620 CM (refer to previous table)

20 Using Voltage Drop Formula
State the Formula Plug in the known values Calculate Check for acceptability – since 11.1 volts is greater than 3.6, this is NOT acceptable for 120 volt circuit

21 Using Voltage Drop Formula
In our previous problem, the voltage drop is greater than 3%, it is a code violation. We can solve our Voltage Drop Formula to find the necessary and Circular Mil Area and determine the proper wire gauge.

22 Solving Voltage Drop Formula
State the Formula This is a Proportion, so we can cross multiply Cross Multiply Solve for CMA (Isolating the Variable)

23 Solving for CMA Remember the Problem:
What We Know: There is an extension cord that measures 150 ft. and has a current draw of 5 amps. If the cord is 18 gauge, what is the voltage drop? K = 12 I = 5 amps L = 150 ft

24 Check for gauge (referring to previous table) –
Solving for CMA State the Formula Plug in the known values Calculate Check for gauge (referring to previous table) – since 5000 is between 4110 and 6530, we need to go with 6530, which coordinates with a 12 gauge wire.

25 Control - Electrical Protective Devices
Automatically opens circuit if excess current from overload or ground-fault is detected – shutting off electricity Includes GFCI’s, fuses, and circuit breakers Fuses and circuit breakers are overcurrent devices. When too much current: Fuses melt Circuit breakers trip open

26 Hazard – Overloaded Circuits
Hazards may result from: Too many devices plugged into a circuit, causing heated wires and possibly a fire Damaged tools overheating Lack of overcurrent protection Wire insulation melting, which may cause arcing and a fire in the area where the overload exists, even inside a wall

27 Control – Use GFCI (ground-fault circuit interrupter)
Protects you from shock Detects difference in current between the black and white wires If ground fault detected, GFCI shuts off electricity in 1/40th of a second Use GFCI’s on all 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles, or have an assured equipment grounding conductor program.

28 Power Tool Requirements
Have a three-wire cord with ground plugged into a grounded receptacle, or Be double insulated, or Be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer

29 Tool Safety Tips Use gloves and appropriate footwear
Store in dry place when not using Don’t use in wet/damp conditions Keep working areas well lit Ensure not a tripping hazard Don’t carry a tool by the cord Don’t yank the cord to disconnect it Keep cords away from heat, oil, & sharp edges Disconnect when not in use and when changing accessories such as blades & bits Remove damaged tools from use

30 Summary – Hazards & Protections
Protective Measures Proper grounding Use GFCI’s Use fuses and circuit breakers Guard live parts Lockout/Tagout Proper use of flexible cords Close electric panels Training Hazards Inadequate wiring Exposed electrical parts Wires with bad insulation Ungrounded electrical systems and tools Overloaded circuits Damaged power tools and equipment Using the wrong PPE and tools Overhead powerlines All hazards are made worse in wet conditions

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