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© John Tribe 16 Environmental Impacts. © John Tribe.

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Presentation on theme: "© John Tribe 16 Environmental Impacts. © John Tribe."— Presentation transcript:

1 © John Tribe 16 Environmental Impacts

2 © John Tribe

3 Learning outcomes By studying this section students will be able to: –distinguish between growth in GNP and growth in well-being –analyse environmental impacts –understand environmental externalities –distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources (sources) and analyse the use of such resources –understand the significance of waste disposal capacity (sinks) to the economy –analyse the effects of the existence of open-access resources on resource use –identify the existence of externalities and their contribution to wellbeing

4 © John Tribe Recreation, leisure, tourism and the environment The sector very much depends on the environment for its success. But the richer the environment, the more recreational activities are drawn to it. The more economic activity, the more the potential negative impacts on the environment Therefore the sector has the potential to destroy the very environment upon which it depends – pristine beaches, coral, attractive countryside, flora and fauna (loss of biodiversity)

5 © John Tribe Recreation, leisure, tourism and the environment Gielen, Kurihara, and Moriguchi (2002) analysed the environmental impact of Japanese leisure and tourism Their results suggest that leisure and tourism are responsible for –17% of the national greenhouse gas emissions –13% of the national primary energy use –and that a considerable part of the national land use is affected by leisure and tourism. –Leisure and tourism impact on biodiversity is hard to quantify because of inadequate monitoring systems.

6 © John Tribe Local environmental impacts At the local level these can be classified as –impacts on natural resources –pollution, and –physical impacts

7 © John Tribe Impacts on Natural Resources water energy, food, and other raw materials forests, wetland, wildlife and coastal areas. Pictures show –Snow cannon, Meribel –Water to irrigate grass in Sharm, Egypt

8 © John Tribe Pollution air pollutants (top picture) noise pollution solid waste littering, sewage, noxious discharges and visual pollution (bottom picture)

9 © John Tribe Physical Impacts Specific impacts from recreational activities include –damage by trampling or mountain bikes on vegetation (see photo) –the impact of water-based recreation on marine ecosystems such as coral reefs –and animal distress and displacement from safaris.

10 © John Tribe Global Impacts loss of biological diversity depletion of the ozone layer, and climate change

11 © John Tribe Economic growth and well-being Environmental economists point out that GNP may give a misleading impression about improvements in economic wellbeing for the following reasons: –The environmental costs of producing goods and services which appear in GNP are not always accounted for. These are called environmental externalities. –The distribution of the benefits of economic growth is not always even. –GNP figures may include ‘defensive’ expenditure. Defensive expenditure is that which would not be otherwise undertaken and is taken to offset environmental externalities. –The loss of resources to future generations is not accounted for –The destruction of the natural environment that can occur from economic development is not given a monetary value.

12 © John Tribe Externalities Production on production. –One firm’s external costs interfere with the operation of another firm Production on consumption. –Industrial externalities affect individuals’ consumption of a good or service Consumption on production. –External costs of consuming a good or service interfere with a firm’s production process, Consumption on consumption. –External effects of an individual’s consumption of a good or service affect the well- being of another consumer Overcrowding in Prague (Consumption on consumption)

13 © John Tribe Use of resources Non-renewable resources –Landscapes, views, open spaces and tranquillity represent non-renewable resources in the leisure and tourism sector. –An important consideration concerning the use of non-renewable resources is the rate of depletion and hence the level of resources bequeathed to future generations.

14 © John Tribe Use of resources Renewable resources –An important renewable resource for large-scale tourism development in some parts of the world is water –Resources such as footpaths, public parks and golf- courses also have a renewable resource element to them. –carrying capacity: the maximum number of people who can use a site without an unacceptable alteration in the physical environment and without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience gained by visitors” (Mathieson and Wall, 1982).

15 © John Tribe Pricing and Carrying capacity Q1 = carrying capacity Zero price would mean use of Q1- Q0 beyond carrying capacity Price of P2 ensures use within carrying capacity

16 © John Tribe Other Issues The macroeconomy and waste

17 © John Tribe Other Issues Open access and overuse (Harden (1968): the tragedy of the commons. Environmental effects of other sectors on the leisure and tourism sector –global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain and atmospheric pollution each have impacts on the leisure and tourism sector. Positive environmental effects of leisure and tourism

18 © John Tribe Review of key terms Environmental economics = –analysis of human well-being as well as the flow of money in the economy. Defensive GNP expenditure = –expenditure that takes place to defend or protect one party from the external effects of the activities of another (e.g. double glazing as a defence from noise pollution). Externalities = –those costs or benefits arising from production or consumption of goods and services which are not reflected in market prices. ISEW = –Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare. Non-renewable resources = –those which have a fixed supply. Renewable resources = –those which are capable of being replenished. Waste sink = –part of the environment where waste products are deposited.

19 © John Tribe 16 Environmental Impacts: The End

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