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An Introduction to Referencing ©The Learning Quality Support Unit, 2013.

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1 An Introduction to Referencing ©The Learning Quality Support Unit, 2013

2 Outline of the session What is referencing? Why is referencing important? When to reference How to reference – citations and references – quotations & paraphrasing Information required – books, journals, websites Note taking for effective referencing

3 What is referencing? Referencing is based on the concept that information and ideas are the intellectual property of the person(s) that first presented them. Referencing in an academic work provides a way to identify and acknowledge the source of the information that has been utilised or presented.

4 Why is referencing important? Shows the breadth of your research Identifies published evidence to support the ideas/arguments presented Allows the reader to trace the information sources Acknowledges the intellectual property of the work of others and avoids the issue of plagiarism For assignments – it is part of the mark scheme

5 When should referencing be used? All academic work builds on the ideas and work of others. Referencing should be used to acknowledge: – direct quotations – paraphrasing of theories, arguments, viewpoints – diagrams, images, illustrations – data, statistics and case studies

6 Referencing Systems A range of different referencing systems exist: – author/date (Harvard, APA) – footnotes (MHRA) – Numeric The University of Huddersfield preferred referencing system is APA 6 th – guides are available at

7 APA referencing principles Citation – this is included in the body of the academic work to provide a brief acknowledgement of the author and date for the information presented. Reference – this provides full details for the source of the information. – references for the citations in the body of the academic work are presented at the end of the academic work in the form of a single reference list which is arranged alphabetically by author surname. Occasionally a bibliography may be used. This provides a list of all the sources consulted, including those that have been used but not cited in the body of the academic work. It is generally arranged alphabetically by author surname.

8 Citations for Quotations & Paraphrasing Exact words from a source should be clearly identified with quotation marks and inclusion of the page (or paragraph) number(s) in the citation. It is argued that “references are items you have read and specifically referred to (or cited) in your assignment” (Neville, 2007, p24). Quotations of 40 words or longer, should be presented in a separate indented paragraph without quotation marks. The citation should include the page (or paragraph) number(s). Note: the use of quotations should be minimal. Ideally, information from sources should be fully paraphrased into your own words. This illustrates a greater understanding of the ideas and concepts presented.

9 What information do I need? Different sources (books, journals, websites etc.) each have there own requirements. As a general rule, all sources require details of the author(s), date of publication, title, place of publication and the digital object identifier (DOI) for electronic sources The required information and reference presentation format for the different sources is explained in the APA referencing guides available through the library website:

10 Books Author(s) in format: Surname, Initial(s) Year of publication Title Edition (if not the first) Place of publication Name of publisher  Note that a chapter in an edited book will also require information of the editor(s), the title of the chapter and the page numbers of the chapter. Citation: According to Mason-Whitehead and Mason (2008) …. Reference: Mason – Whitehead, E. & Mason, T. (2008). Study Skills for Nurses. (2 nd ed.). London:Sage Publications.

11 Electronic Books Author(s) in format: Surname, Initial(s) Year of publication Title of book DOI (or URL of DOI not available) Citation: Smith (2008) stated that …… Reference: Smith, A. (2008). The wealth of nations. doi: 10.1036/007142363x. Citation: It could be argued that the witness plays one of the most crucial roles in a court of law (Wall, 2009). Reference: Wall, W. (2009). Forensic science in court: the role of the expert witness. Retrieved from

12 Journals Author(s) in format: Surname, Initial(s) Year of publication Article title Journal title Volume Issue or part number Page number(s) Citation: Fashion is an important part of image (Twigg, 2010). Reference: Twigg, J. (2010). How does Vogue negotiate age?: Fashion, the body, and the older woman. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture, 14(4), 471- 490.

13 Electronic journals Use same format as printed journal article Include doi after the page numbers Mostrom, A. M., & Blumberg, P. (2012). Does learning-centred teaching promote grade improvement? Innovative Higher Education, 37(5), 397-405. doi: 10.1007/s10755-012-9216-1 If no doi: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx (URL of database provider or URL of the journal home page) No retrieval date is required. McMahon, N. (2010). Sex discrimination in the workplace. Caterer and Hotelkeeper, 200(4647), 52. Retrieved from

14 Websites Author(s) in format: Surname, Initial(s) or name of organisation Year (if no obvious date then write n.d.) Title of website Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx (URL of website) Atherton, J.S. (2005). Learning and teaching: cognitive theories of learning. Retrieved from Marks and Spencer. (2013). Your M&S: Full Year Result 2012/13. Retrieved from _year_results_201213

15 Importance of effective note-taking Effective referencing can only be achieved if the correct information is recorded as you research the topic. Developing an effective system for recording the source of information in your notes is essential. Remember to clearly distinguish between any direct quotes and information written in your own words.

16 Note-taking example - Books Name of author(s) Year of publication Title Name of publisher Place of publication DOI Page reference Notes:

17 Resources APA referencing guides Online tutorial

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