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Central America and the Caribbean Page 245 - 251.

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1 Central America and the Caribbean Page 245 - 251

2 Physical Features Central America connects North and South America. Isthmus- a strip of land with water on both sides connects two large bodies of land. Panama Canal- human made train route between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Steady shift of plates makes this region physically unsteady.


4 Trade is important because of the Panama Canal, which cuts through the land bridge and connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

5 ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS Earthquakes- Hurricanes- intense storms cause great destruction Honduras – averages 8 hurricanes each year

6 The climate and vegetation of the region include forested highlands, tropical forests, and humid lowlands. Cool, humid climates Cloud forest, or a moist, high-elevation tropical forest where low clouds are common Islands and Coastal Plains Humid tropical and tropical savanna climates Pacific coast savannas cleared for plantations and ranches Caribbean coast rain forest Inland Mountains

7 Climate Wet and warm- close to large bodies of water and equator. Trade winds bring rain to the region. Year round rain- provides rain for coffee and bananas. Highlands are densely populated because of the dry, cool climate that allows for variety of crops.

8 Natural Resources Rural areas use farming Urban areas use commerce and manufacturing Jamaica- bauxite is mined for aluminum Some Petroleum but most import it.

9 Central America’s mines and forests also provide resources for export.

10 Other export crops are bananas, citrus fruits, coffee, and spices.

11 Many people work on the plantations that grow crops for export. But the pay is poor, and as a result, average per-capita income in the Caribbean is very low.

12 Farming and Tourism Farming Large agricultural area lowlands of Central America Plantations- large commercial farms Cash crops – sugar and coffee Tourism Business for food, places of stay, other services for visitors Scuba diving Hiking Cruise ships resorts

13 Sugar cane plantations in the Caribbean provide the region’s largest export crop.

14 Tourism is an increasingly important industry. Local residents of the islands are able to find jobs working in the hotels, resorts, and restaurants there.

15 Ecosystems

16 Most people live in urban areas, where they hope to find jobs in tourism. The cities attract people who are seeking a better way of life. Bahamas

17 Environment Dangers Pollution- water and crops Chemicals and pesticides Deforestation- clearing of large amount of trees Loss of Habitats

18 Section 1 review Words to know: Isthmus- Hurricane- Biodiversity- Tourism- Deforestation-

19 Section 1 Review How does tourism affect the countries in Central America and the Caribbean? Describe the effects of a hurricane on a country’s land, structure, and people.

20 History Around 1000 B.C. Mayan Civilization Developed a calendar Writing system using symbols Grew maize(corn) using irrigation Organized with city-states Large pyramid temples

21 The Mayan people built a great civilization in the area that spread throughout the region. The homeland of the Maya stretched from southern Mexico into northern Central America.

22 The Maya built many cities with temples and palaces in present-day Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. Each city was an independent state ruled by a god king and served as a center for religious ceremony and trade.

23 The pyramids at Tikal were among the tallest structures in the Americas until the 20 th century.

24 Caribbean People Arawaks and Caribs Grew variety of plants for food Gathered fruits Harvested shellfish Used canoes for traveling Divided into villages run by chiefs

25 Colonization and Slavery 1492 Columbus sailed to the Bahamas Early Spanish explorers in search for gold or other riches Convert native people to Christianity Colony-group of people who live in a territory with ties to distant state. Encomienda- legal system to control Native Americans (tax them and force them to work)

26 Colonization and Slavery Haciendas-huge farms and ranches Import slaves to do work Triangular system of trade- Caribbean, Africa, and Europe Rebellion in Haiti-Toussaint L’Ouverture led the rebellion 1804 – Haiti people declared Independence 1821- Guatemala people declared Independence

27 Government Dictatorship-governments controlled by a single leader Cuba- Fulgencio Batista limited political freedom 1959-Fidel Castro led communist revolution US ended relations with Cuba Guatemala-deadly civil war lasted 40 years Caribbean gained independence 1990’s

28 Section 2 Review Words to Know: Maya- Colony Encomienda Hacienda Independence Dictatorship

29 Section 2 Review What makes a government a dictatorship? Why did newly independent nations look for foreign investors?

30 Central America and the Caribbeans Today

31 A greater variety of influences was at work in the Caribbean. The Spanish, French, British, Danish, and Dutch existed side by side with the African and Native American. Residents of the islands are of European, African, or mixed ancestry.

32 Main Idea 2: The culture of the Caribbean islands shows signs of past colonialism and slavery. People speak Spanish, English, French, and mixtures of African and European languages. Haitians speak French Creole, which is a dialect, or a regional variety of a language. People Most islanders are descended from Europeans, Africans, or both. Some Asians, who came to work on plantations after slavery ended, live on the island. Language Former colonies are mostly Roman Catholic. People also blend Catholicism and traditional African religions. Religion

33 Caribbean Culture Caribbean food reflects past. Yams and okra from Africa In Barbados, souse is made of pigs’ tails, ears, and snouts because slaveholders gave slaves the leftover parts of the pig. People from India brought curry to the region. Festivals Islanders celebrate a variety of holidays. The most widespread is Carnival, before Lent, when people celebrate with big parades, fancy costumes, and music. Foods

34 The religions of the Caribbean include Catholic and Protestant, as well as Santeria, which combines certain African practices and rituals with Catholic elements.

35 Voodoo is practiced on the island of Haiti.

36 Rastafarianism is a religious and political movement based in Jamaica.

37 Spanish is spoken on the most populous islands in the Caribbean: Cuba, with a population of about 11 million, and the Dominican Republic, with a population of about 8.5 million.

38 There are also many French speakers (Haiti alone has a population of more than 6 million).

39 Unfortunately, many end up living in slums. The region is working to find a way to channel more of the profits from tourism and farming to benefit local communities. Jamaica

40 Music, heavily influenced and shaped by the African heritage in the region, is an important part of the popular culture of Central America and the Caribbean.

41 Calypso music began in Trinidad. Calypso combines musical elements from Africa, Spain, and the Caribbean. Calypso songs are accompanied by steel drums and guitars, and they have improvised lyrics.

42 Reggae developed in Jamaica in the 1960s. Many reggae songs deal with social problems and religion.

43 Government Caribbean government – democracy using parliamentary system Parliamentary system- prime minister as leader Democratic election- citizens legal to vote Dictatorship- Cuba- socialist republic Elections – for representatives only College and health care free in Cuba

44 Economy Goal – increase capital investments Encourage foreign companies to build industry Free Trade-goods and services are traded through countries without restrictions such as tariffs Benefits – Low taxes encourage foreign business to build factories- creates jobs

45 Reform Farms Free trade affects farming Large amounts of produce for free market More pesticides Don’t own farms so international trade cannot profit Microcredit- gives poor farmers a start to own land ( Co-ops)

46 ECOTOURISM Tourism that focuses on environment and seeks to minimize environmental impact Exploring nature by foot or horseback. Keep Native cultures.

47 Section 3 Review Words to Know: Carnival Ecotourism Santeria Diaspora microcredit

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