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**Applications of Newton’s Laws**

Chapter 6 Applications of Newton’s Laws

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**Units of Chapter 6 Frictional Forces Strings and Springs**

Translational Equilibrium Connected Objects Circular Motion

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6-1 Frictional Forces Friction has its basis in surfaces that are not completely smooth:

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6-1 Frictional Forces Kinetic friction: the friction experienced by surfaces sliding against one another The static frictional force depends on the normal force: (6-1) The constant is called the coefficient of kinetic friction.

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6-1 Frictional Forces

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6-1 Frictional Forces The kinetic frictional force is also independent of the relative speed of the surfaces, and of their area of contact.

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6-1 Frictional Forces The static frictional force keeps an object from starting to move when a force is applied. The static frictional force has a maximum value, but may take on any value from zero to the maximum, depending on what is needed to keep the sum of forces zero.

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**6-1 Frictional Forces (6-2) where (6-3)**

The static frictional force is also independent of the area of contact and the relative speed of the surfaces.

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6-2 Strings and Springs When you pull on a string or rope, it becomes taut. We say that there is tension in the string.

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6-2 Strings and Springs The tension in a real rope will vary along its length, due to the weight of the rope. Here, we will assume that all ropes, strings, wires, etc. are massless unless otherwise stated.

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6-2 Strings and Springs An ideal pulley is one that simply changes the direction of the tension:

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6-2 Strings and Springs Hooke’s law for springs states that the force increases with the amount the spring is stretched or compressed: The constant k is called the spring constant.

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**6-3 Translational Equilibrium**

When an object is in translational equilibrium, the net force on it is zero: (6-5) This allows the calculation of unknown forces.

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**6-3 Translational Equilibrium**

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6-4 Connected Objects When forces are exerted on connected objects, their accelerations are the same. If there are two objects connected by a string, and we know the force and the masses, we can find the acceleration and the tension:

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6-4 Connected Objects We treat each box as a separate system:

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6-4 Connected Objects If there is a pulley, it is easiest to have the coordinate system follow the string:

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6-5 Circular Motion An object moving in a circle must have a force acting on it; otherwise it would move in a straight line. The direction of the force is towards the center of the circle.

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6-5 Circular Motion Some algebra gives us the magnitude of the acceleration, and therefore the force, required to keep an object of mass m moving in a circle of radius r. The magnitude of the force is given by: (6-15)

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6-5 Circular Motion This force may be provided by the tension in a string, the normal force, or friction, among others.

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6-5 Circular Motion

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6-5 Circular Motion An object may be changing its speed as it moves in a circle; in that case, there is a tangential acceleration as well:

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**Summary of Chapter 6 Friction is due to microscopic roughness.**

Kinetic friction: Static friction: Tension: the force transmitted through a string. Force exerted by an ideal spring:

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Summary of Chapter 6 An object is in translational equilibrium if the net force acting on it is zero. Connected objects have the same acceleration. The force required to move an object of mass m in a circle of radius r is:

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