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World Politics Complexity and Competing Processes.

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Presentation on theme: "World Politics Complexity and Competing Processes."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Politics Complexity and Competing Processes

2  Cooperation and conflict epitomize the complex and often contradictory nature of political interactions. Conflict and Cooperation

3 Cooperation  Refers to political actors proactively working together  It’s inherently active  Requires communication and interaction to achieve mutually agreeable outcomes.

4 Cooperation (cont.)  Can operate within existing structures  Like the UN.  Can lead to the creation of new structures  Like the Kyoto Protocol.

5 Cooperation (cont.)  Can be multilateral or bilateral.  Can exist without government involvement  Like nongovernmental organizations like the World Wildlife Fund and Greenpeace.

6 Conflict  Takes many forms  Ranging from the withdrawal of diplomatic relations to full-blown warfare.  Usually garners far more attention than cooperation.

7 Conflict (cont.)  Conflict can involve a full range of actors  Governments  Subnational actors  NGOs.

8  Conflict can also be internal (within a country’s borders) and involve  IOs  Governments  NGOs  Subnational groups  Multinational corporations (MNCs), and  Individuals  Ex. Sudan.

9 Conflict (cont.)  Conflict and cooperation are not mutually exclusive.  Often the same global actors cooperate on some issues and  Conflict over others  Ex. the relationship between China and Taiwan.

10  Complex cooperative and conflictual relations can be either:  Bilateral  Ex. China and Taiwan  or Multilateral  Ex. the six-party talks concerning North Korea’s nuclear program.

11 Globalization Versus Fragmentation

12 Globalization  Drives the world economically, socially, and politically toward greater integration and interdependence.

13  Some argue that globalization is marginalizing nation- states.  As international regimes, regional and subregional trading blocs, NGOs, and MNCs  promote and take advantage of relaxed constraints on the movement of goods, capital, and labor,  states necessarily cede some of their authority to them. Globalization (cont.)

14  Pulls regions, subregions, states, and even subnational actors back to focus on their own specific and unique interests and concerns. Fragmentation

15  Fragmentation is driven by local, domestic, regional social, environmental, political, and economic considerations.  Thus, it impedes globalization by forcing government attention back to constituents, interest groups, and local imperatives. Fragmentation (cont.)

16  Globalization and fragmentation are not new  Global thinking goes back 500 years and even before with:  The spread of religion  The emergence of international law  The Enlightenment  The development of capitalism.

17  Progress in globalization has often led directly to fragmentation  Imperialism led to  World War I which led to  World Wars II.

18  Despite fragmentation, globalization proceeded apace as:  The number of NGOs burgeoned  The United Nations took on a more proactive role  The Internet linked people like never before  The global economy continued to grow and  The flows of people, goods, and capital across borders increased.

19  The media is also crossing national boundaries like never before.  Terrorists have been able to move around the world with greater ease.  International reaction to global crises has increased.

20  The demonstration of the cultural impact of globalization is seen in the exchange of consumer goods.

21 Cultural Impact of Globalization  However, the world has not become homogenized.  Language, country identification, and traditional foods and heritage remain cultural signifiers.  Many countries have deliberately sought the benefits of globalization  Others have rejected it aggressively and retreated to nationalism  Ex.Iran.

22 Anarchy v. Order

23  States must function and interact without enforceable legal norms or even a universal code of ethics.  There is no international police force or global system of justice  International politics are anarchic and the basic global tensions stem from this.

24  North Korea example  Conflict and cooperation,  Globalization and fragmentation.  International community has stake in the outcome of the crisis over North Korea’s nuclear program.  War would have costly global ramifications.

25  A much larger marketplace for:  Jobs, Goods, and Services  Access to different cultures  Food, Music, Art, Literature, and Lifestyles  Faster, more reliable means of communication. Benefits of Globalization

26  Conclusion  Cooperation and conflict, and globalization and fragmentation, are defining features of international relations

27 Downside of Globalization  Tensions created by migration  Fears of growing cultural homogeneity  The flow of products including illegal narcotics and nuclear technologies.

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