Presentation on theme: "World Politics Complexity and Competing Processes."— Presentation transcript:
World Politics Complexity and Competing Processes
Cooperation and conflict epitomize the complex and often contradictory nature of political interactions. Conflict and Cooperation
Cooperation Refers to political actors proactively working together It’s inherently active Requires communication and interaction to achieve mutually agreeable outcomes.
Cooperation (cont.) Can operate within existing structures Like the UN. Can lead to the creation of new structures Like the Kyoto Protocol.
Cooperation (cont.) Can be multilateral or bilateral. Can exist without government involvement Like nongovernmental organizations like the World Wildlife Fund and Greenpeace.
Conflict Takes many forms Ranging from the withdrawal of diplomatic relations to full-blown warfare. Usually garners far more attention than cooperation.
Conflict (cont.) Conflict can involve a full range of actors Governments Subnational actors NGOs.
Conflict can also be internal (within a country’s borders) and involve IOs Governments NGOs Subnational groups Multinational corporations (MNCs), and Individuals Ex. Sudan.
Conflict (cont.) Conflict and cooperation are not mutually exclusive. Often the same global actors cooperate on some issues and Conflict over others Ex. the relationship between China and Taiwan.
Complex cooperative and conflictual relations can be either: Bilateral Ex. China and Taiwan or Multilateral Ex. the six-party talks concerning North Korea’s nuclear program.
Globalization Drives the world economically, socially, and politically toward greater integration and interdependence.
Some argue that globalization is marginalizing nation- states. As international regimes, regional and subregional trading blocs, NGOs, and MNCs promote and take advantage of relaxed constraints on the movement of goods, capital, and labor, states necessarily cede some of their authority to them. Globalization (cont.)
Pulls regions, subregions, states, and even subnational actors back to focus on their own specific and unique interests and concerns. Fragmentation
Fragmentation is driven by local, domestic, regional social, environmental, political, and economic considerations. Thus, it impedes globalization by forcing government attention back to constituents, interest groups, and local imperatives. Fragmentation (cont.)
Globalization and fragmentation are not new Global thinking goes back 500 years and even before with: The spread of religion The emergence of international law The Enlightenment The development of capitalism.
Progress in globalization has often led directly to fragmentation Imperialism led to World War I which led to World Wars II.
Despite fragmentation, globalization proceeded apace as: The number of NGOs burgeoned The United Nations took on a more proactive role The Internet linked people like never before The global economy continued to grow and The flows of people, goods, and capital across borders increased.
The media is also crossing national boundaries like never before. Terrorists have been able to move around the world with greater ease. International reaction to global crises has increased.
The demonstration of the cultural impact of globalization is seen in the exchange of consumer goods.
Cultural Impact of Globalization However, the world has not become homogenized. Language, country identification, and traditional foods and heritage remain cultural signifiers. Many countries have deliberately sought the benefits of globalization Others have rejected it aggressively and retreated to nationalism Ex.Iran.
States must function and interact without enforceable legal norms or even a universal code of ethics. There is no international police force or global system of justice International politics are anarchic and the basic global tensions stem from this.
North Korea example Conflict and cooperation, Globalization and fragmentation. International community has stake in the outcome of the crisis over North Korea’s nuclear program. War would have costly global ramifications.
A much larger marketplace for: Jobs, Goods, and Services Access to different cultures Food, Music, Art, Literature, and Lifestyles Faster, more reliable means of communication. Benefits of Globalization
Conclusion Cooperation and conflict, and globalization and fragmentation, are defining features of international relations
Downside of Globalization Tensions created by migration Fears of growing cultural homogeneity The flow of products including illegal narcotics and nuclear technologies.