Presentation on theme: "Beef - From Pasture to Plate Many Choices, All Nutrient Rich Jennifer Leheska, Ph.D., R.D. Nutrition Research Consultant Funded by The Beef Checkoff."— Presentation transcript:
Beef - From Pasture to Plate Many Choices, All Nutrient Rich Jennifer Leheska, Ph.D., R.D. Nutrition Research Consultant Funded by The Beef Checkoff
2 Outline Insight on beef production Different choices of beef Beef’s nutrient content Can beef’s nutrient profile be changed?
3 Beef Production is a Family Business More than 800,000 beef producers in the U.S. –Average herd size of 43 head of cattle 80 % of beef operations have been in the same family for > 25 years 10% have been in the same family for >100 years
4 Beef Producers are Committed to: Safe and Wholesome Beef Sound Management Practices Taking Care of the Land and Cattle
5 Cow/Calf Stocker Fed cattle How Beef Production Works
6 Many Choices, One Commitment Natural Certified Organic Grass-finished Grain-fed
7 Grain-Fed High-energy grain diets –Growth and lean muscle –Primarily corn based –Vitamins and minerals –Nutritionally balanced
8 Grass-fed “Grass (annual and perennial), forbs (legumes, brassicas) browse, forage, or stockpiled forages, and post-harvest crop residue without separated grain shall be at least 99 % of the energy source for the lifetime of the ruminant specie, with the exception of milk consumed prior to weaning”. (USDA-AMS, 2006)
9 Natural “Minimally processed containing no additives” (USDA-FSIS, 1999) USDA’s definition of Natural has no relation to animal production –Most all fresh beef is “Natural” by this definition Beef labeled as Natural typically refers to cattle raised without growth promotants or antibiotics –USDA reviews and approves these labels on a case-by-case basis
10 Organic Organic Food Production Act, Oct 2002 100% organic feed –Vitamins and minerals are permitted No growth promotants and antibiotics 3 yrs to qualify for “USDA Certified Organic”
18 ControlGrass-fedP - value Total Fat, %4.42.8 0.001 SFA a 45.148.80.002 MUFA b 46.242.50.023 PUFA c 2.773.410.129 n-30.1911.0700.002 Total CLA0.480.850.001 Leheska, et al (JAS, 2008) Fat Profile of Grass-finished and Grain-fed Strip Steaks as Percentage of Total Fat (g/100g) 5.5 x 2 x
19 Average Fat Profile of Beef From Various Studies Grass-Finished Grain-Fed 46% 45% 5% 46% MUFA 45% SFA 1% n-3 5% n-6 0.4% CLA n-3 n-6 CLA MUFA SFA
20 ComponentDV/ RecGrain-FedGrass-fed Total Fat65 g/d Daily Value 3.7 g ~6% DV 2.4 g ~4% DV Omega-3285 mg/d AHA 7 mg ~2.5% 26 mg ~9% Total CLA600-3400 mg/d Science 18 mg ~3% 20 mg ~3% Comparison of a 3 oz cooked Top Loin Steak Putting it Into Perspective Calculations derived using data from Leheska et al., Journal of Animal Science 2008
26 Grass-Fed Beef References French, P., C. Stanton, F. Lawless, E. B. O’Riordan, F. J. Monahan, P. J. Caffrey, A. P. Moloney. 2000. Fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, of intramuscular fat from steers offered grazed grass, grass silage, or concentrate-based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2849-2855. Leheska, J. M., L. D. Thompson, J. C. Howe , E. Hentges, J. Boyce, J. C. Brooks, B. Shriver, L. Hoover, and M. F. Miller. 2008. Effects of conventional and grass feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef. J. Anim. Sci. 86: 3575-3585. Marmer, W. M., R. J. Maxwell, J. E. Williams. 1984. Effects of dietary regimen and tissue site on bovine fatty acid profiles. J. Anim. Sci. 59(1): 109-121. Melton, S. L., M. Amiri, G. W. Davis, W. R. Backus. 1982. Flavor and chemical characteristics of ground beef from grass-, forage-grain and grain-finished steers. J. Anim. Sci. 55:77. Noci, F., F. J. Monahan, P. French, A. P. Moloney. 2005. The fatty acid composition of muscle fat and subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture-fed beef heifers: Influences of the duration of grazing. J. Anim. Sci. 83:1167- 1178 Yang, A., M. C. Lanari, M. Brewster, R. K. Tume. 2002. Lipid stability and meat color of beef from pasture-and grain-fed cattle with or without vitamin E supplement. Meat Science. 60:41-50.