Your next speech…. 4 to 6 minutes (Change from syllabus) Materials: Keyword outline & note cards Visual aid: PowerPoint (emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org by 8 p.m. on the day before your presentation; also bring back up copy) email@example.com Research required: at least 4 sources (with citations) Areas of Focus: EVERYTHING
Informative vs. Persuasive Knowledge and Understanding vs. Attempting to change or convince Similarities: clear and concise, organized, strong delivery, ethical, credible, appropriate use of language
Importance/Role of Persuasion Persuasive speech: ‘attempting to create, reinforce, or change your audience’s beliefs or actions’ (p. 300) Understanding persuasion—important for speakers and listeners Speaker as advocate
Ethical Persuasion Ethical goals and methods Avoid subtle and blatant dishonesty Power of language ‘learn about all sides of issue and competing viewpoints’ (p. 301)
Persuasion as Psychological Process 2 or more viewpoints; competing or different angle/degree Degrees of Persuasion Strongly opposed -------------- Strongly in favor Audience analysis/centeredness knowledge AND attitude Mental dialogue (give and take) with audience Set realistic goals Will everyone change their beliefs/opinions after hearing one speech?
Target Audiences; Audience Centeredness Advertising = big example of persuasion and targeting audiences Check out these ads; what’s the persuasive message & who is the target audience?
Types of Persuasive Speeches Persuasive speeches on Questions of Fact Questions of Value Questions of Policy
Addressing Questions of Fact True answer exists; may not have enough information yet Inconclusive info Speculations and Predictions Choose side -- present those facts, persuasively Popular org. pattern – Topical Main points = reasons to agree
Addressing Questions of Value Includes facts; Demands value judgments Right or wrong? Good or bad? Moral or immoral? Fair or unfair? Pick a side; justify your claim Standards for the value judgment? Popular org. pattern – Topical Establish the standards apply the standards
Addressing Questions of Policy Course of action – should or shouldn’t be taken Can include questions of fact and/or value; step further by deciding what should be done Passive agreement vs. Immediate action Convincing that something should be done vs. Convincing someone to do what should be done (specific call to action) Must identify need, plan, and practicality
Addressing Questions of Policy Popular org. patterns Problem-Solution Order Need/seriousness of problem plan for solving the problem/practicality Problem-Cause-Solution Order Identify the problem analyze cause of problem solution to problem Comparative Advantages Order Each main point = why your solution is better than others Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (MMS) Attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action
SPEECH WORKSHOP In class today: HW: Examples of speeches Brainstorming and Audience Analysis Next class (Thursday): MMS speeches/Infomercials