Presentation on theme: "‘C’ Grade –gain further knowledge of pros & cons of animal testing ‘B’ Grade –understand how to structure answers to questions in section ‘C’ ‘A’ Grade."— Presentation transcript:
‘C’ Grade –gain further knowledge of pros & cons of animal testing ‘B’ Grade –understand how to structure answers to questions in section ‘C’ ‘A’ Grade –apply skills to be able to answer a range of questions in section ‘C’
What is Animal Testing? Animal testing is used to assess the safety and effectiveness of drugs as well as understand how the human body functions. It is also used for education and training. Animal testing is used for research, typically in a laboratory environment.
Pairs task Draw up a set of ‘pros’ & ‘cons’ of Animal Testing Analyse your own opinions – is your personal stance on animal testing a rational one?
Arguments against? Practical:- Can be misleading Test tube experiments just as good Animal stress invalidates results Have to test on humans eventually Moral:- Animal rights Cannot prevent abuse Animals die Animals suffer
Arguments for? Practical:- Vaccines – rabies, polio, MMR, TB Antibiotics, HIV drugs, insulin, cancer treatments Lab animals do react usefully Development of surgical techiques Test of organism, not just tissue DNA match to primates IT simulations not good enough Moral:- Human life of greater value Legislation protects lab animals Why so different from farming? Few animals feel pain prior to death.
Sample exam question... The development of new medicines highlights disagreements about the scientific value of testing new drugs on animals. While many researchers argue that animal testing is unavoidable, there is a strongly held opposing view that animal testing is no longer necessary. Assess the merits of these two views, including scientific evidence which might support them.
How question will be marked:- 3 assessment objectives: 1. Demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding applied to a range of issues, using skills from different disciplines(8 marks) 2. Marshall evidence and draw conclusions: select, interpret, evaluate and integrate information, data, concepts and opinions (8 marks) 3. Communicate clearly and accurately in a concise, logical and relevant way(4 marks)
Assessment Objective 1 - knowledge 1 mark each (up to 8) 1. Some form of drug testing is necessary 2. Medical knowledge is increased by drug testing 3. Assumption of animals and humans reacting to drugs in the same way (viz Northwick Park) 4. Ethically unacceptable to use fellow humans for testing 5. Historical precedent for animal testing 6. Public demand for medicines to be safe 7. Animals have rights, as well as humans 8. Strict controls on care of lab animals 9. Emotive topic with extreme views (viz Huntingdon Life Sciences)
Assess Obj 2 – relevant arguments 1 mark each (up to 8) 1. Purpose of testing, eg. - side effects - efficacy - indicate further research 2. Pros & Cons
Assess Obj 3 – Clarity Badly expressed, too many grammatical mistakes, or too little written0 marks Understandable only in parts. Some irrelevant or inappropriate comment. Weak grammar 1 mark Generally understandable, reasonably written, grammar acceptable2 marks Broadly understandable, arguments coherent and relevant3 marks Clear & lucid, arguments coherent, well structured4 marks