2 Important terms to know Plagiarism: failure to acknowledge the words and/or ideas of othersCopyright: Legal right to control the reproduction of any original work. To legally reproduce a copyrighted text you need written permission from the copyright holder. This protects the right of the authors to benefit from their own work.Fair use: Under this copyright law, you can quote a brief passage from a copyrighted text for an academic purpose, and not be infringed on copyright. To avoid plagiarism you must cite the source properly and also identify the passage as a quotationIntellectual property: Includes patented inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, and similar creations that are protected by other laws
3 Taking steps to avoid plagiarism Write down your own thoughts and questions before looking into sources. Use these notes to keep track of changes in your ideasRecord your ideas in one color and the ideas of others in a different colorAs you continue your research, keep accurate records. Only use information if you know where you got itIn your notes always put quotation marks around words and phrases and note the pages. If you use end up using these phrases while summarizing the source, it needs to be in quotations. Changing a few words but keeping the sentence structure constitutes as plagiarism.Don’t rely too much on one source or you might use that person’s thoughts instead of your own.Cite the sources of all ideas, opinions, facts and statistics that aren’t common knowledge.Use an appropriate documentation style consistently and properly
4 How to avoid plagiarism cont. When working with sources from the web consider these guidelines:Print or save any online sources you consult, note the date, and also keep the complete URL in case it’s needed in citation.If you copy and paste from a website into a word-processing file, use a different fontAcknowledge every website in your sources, even the ones you access through a linkRequest the author’s permission when quoting blogs, newsgroup postings, and s
5 Using copyrighted materials fairly Consider these four questions…What is the purpose of the use? Educational, nonprofit, and personal are usually considered fairWhat is the nature of the work being used? Often imaginative and unpublished materials can only be used when the copyright holder gives permissionHow much of the copyrighted work is being used? The use of a small portion of text for academic purposes is generally seen as more fair than a whole work for commercial purposes. One guideline is to quote up to 50 words from an article and 300 words from a book. Images and multimedia clips are considered entire works.What effect would this use have on the market for the original? Seen as unfair if it would hurt the sales of the originalWHEN IN DOUBT ASK PERMISSION
6 Maintain a working bibliography Call number of the book, reference work, or printed source. URL for websitesAuthors, editors, translatorsTitle and subtitle of the chapter or article or web pageTitle and subtitle of the book, periodical, or web site in which the chapter, article, or webpage appearsBooks- date of publication, place and publisherPeriodical articles- date, edition, issue, and page numbers if applicableWeb source- date you consulted it, sponsor of website. If available: publication information, date published or updated, other identifying numbers like a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)Article from a database- name of database and URL from the homepageMusic, film, multimedia, etc.- name of author or creator
7 Ways to record a bibliography Use bibliographic software like Endnote, ProCite, and Reference Manager. Ask your instructor before using any of these software’sNote cards or a word processor- each source gets one card, record quotes and other information on the card. Also can use a computer filePrinting the results of online searches in databases and library catalogs- results of searches in online indexes and databases often include bibliographic information about sources they list. You can print these sources, or save them to a flash drive and transfer to a Word file. Record the name of database and the date of your searchUsing photocopies and printouts from web sites- if you photocopy your source you can save time by noting the bibliographic information on the photocopy. If you print out a source you found on web, note the site’s author, name, sponsor, date of publication, URL, and date
8 Annotated bibliography Taking notes helps you think through research and read more systematicallyAnnotation should include a summary of the major points, your evaluation of the relevance and credibility, as well as where this would fit in your projectTaking notes in a research journal or log- keep track of your research. For journals write down leads for sources to record ideas and observations about your topic. Use quotations for any exact words from a quote.
9 paraphrase, summarize, quote, and synthesize your sources Think about how these sources relate to one another.Where do they agree/disagree?Write responses to your sources, it can help you further understand them.Make sure to use many sources; do not rely on just one or two.As writing style and purpose changes, so do the necessary sources.Ask Yourself: Are your sources trustworthy? Have your sources provided you with sufficient facts, examples, and ideas? Do you look at your topic from different perspectives?
10 ParaphrasingParaphrase: to put someone else’s research into your own words and sentences.Use paraphrasing when the info from a paragraph is important, but you cannot remember it for later.Cite the original writer and put quotations around any exact phrasing from the source.Do not simply use synonyms for some words and call it your own. USE YOUR OWN WORDS!Make sure to change sentence structure.Imagine you are addressing an audience who has not read the source material.Check your paraphrase against the original.
11 summarazingSummarize: stating the main point of a source, and generally condense the original material.Works best when source is very long, general idea is important, but details are not.Do not simply restate, put the ideas into your own words and sentences.If the text is long, divide it into sections to make it more manageable.Check your summary against the original.
12 Quoting sources directly In general, a direct quotation will be used for Primary Sources, Sources with technical language, literary or historical sources, an authority figure in the field of your topic, or debaters explaining their argument.Be careful to indicate that it is a direct quotation in your notes.Most secondary sources call for paraphrasing rather than direct quotation.Direct quoting: "I need to go to the store,” said SarahIndirect quoting: Sarah said that she needed to go to the store.
13 Integrating quotations Decide whether or not your own interpretation may be better than the direct quotation you want to use.Use short quotations should flow wellUse a signal phrase that indicates who said the info that you are quoting. “According to Blank”Use a colon after a complete sentence to introduce a quote.You can also use methods such as stating the quote before or after after writing that someone “explains” or “says”Try integrating part of the quote into your own sentence structureIf a quote needs adjustment to make sense in your essay, put these adjustments in brackets.Use parenthesis to indicate words have been omitted.Make smooth transitions between sources and your own voice.