2 Defining TermsEarly Childhood Education ECE includes ages birth through 8 years or infancy through third grade. Thus, it refers to group settings deliberately intended to effect developmental changes in children from birth to the age of entering first grade and continuing through third grade. (reference text, page 7)Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) Providing instructional programs that meet the child’s needs, socially, cognitively, physically.
3 Influences from Abroad Comenius – Wrote the first picture book for children called: “Orbis Pictus (The World of Pictures, 1658).He advocated learning based on the principles of nature—development is from within so children should be allowed to learn at their own pace.He also stressed the basic concept of “learning by doing.”He is most noted for three significant contributions: books with illustrations, an emphasis on education with the senses, and the social reform potential of education.
4 Historical Pioneers continued Locke – Based his theory of education on the scientific method. He theorized the concept of tabula rasa, the belief that the child is born neutral, rather than evil, and is a “clean slate” on which the experiences of parents, society, education, and the world are written. The purpose of education for Locke was to make man a reasoning creature.
5 Historical Pioneers continued Rousseau – He brought forth the idea that children were not inherently evil but naturally good.He is best known for his book EmileHis ideas are still followed today in early childhood classes. Free play is based on his belief in children’s inherent goodness and ability to choose what they need to learn.Concrete rather than abstract materials for children is still one of the cornerstones of developmentally appropriate curriculum in early childhood.
6 Historical PioneersPestalozzi – He, too, used nature study as a part of the curriculum and believed that good education meant the development of the senses.He was pragmatic putting forth ideas and practices for teachers on educating and caring for the child.He stressed the ideas of an integrated curriculum that would develop the “whole child.”He wanted education to be of the hand, the head, and the heart of the child.
7 Historical Pioneers con’t Froebel – He is known as the “Father of Kindergarten” not only for giving it a name but for devoting his life to the development of a system of education for young children.The German word kindergarten means “children’s garden.”He started his kindergarten in 1836 for children aged about 2-6.He believed that play was the highest phase of child development.
8 Froebel con’tHis kindergartens included blocks, pets, and fingerplays.He developed the first educational toys which he termed “gifts.”
9 Historical Pioneers con’t Montessori – First female physician in Italy worked with young children from the slums of Rome. They were poor and mentally retarded children.She designed materials, classrooms, and learning methods for young children and proved that the children could achieve with proper motivation and environments.Her materials were self-correcting and emphasized self-help skills.
10 Montessori con’t She focused on sequential steps of learning. Her materials and approach to teaching and learning are widely used today.
11 Historical Pioneers con’t John Dewey – was the first American influence on American educationDewey believed that children were valuable and that childhood was an important part of their livesHe believed that programs for children should be “child-centered”Children should have real-life experiences and programs should be set up so that children were allowed to make choices (They must learn to learn in a democratic society)
12 Expansion of Kindergarten in America Margaretha Schurz, a student of Froebel, opened the first kindergarten in the United States in Wisconsin for German speaking childrenElizabeth Peabody opened the first English speaking kindergarten in Boston. She influenced William Harris, superintendent of schools in St. Louis. He allowed Susan Blow to open the first kindergarten public kindergarten in the U. S. (1837)Patty Smith Hill of Teacher’s College, Columbia University was an innovator and a leader in the “Progressive Movement”. She wrote the song, “Happy Birthday” and founded the National Association for Nursery Education (NANE) now the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
13 Nursery SchoolsDeweys philosophy was embraced (child-centered) and by the 1920s and 1930s nursery schools and day nurseries went beyond the health aspects. They fostered the child’s total development.Many of the early nursery schools were lab schoolsLucy Sprague Mitcehll established Bank Stree College of Education (and its lab)
14 Nursery Schools con’tAbigail Elliot work led to her helping to establish Pacific Oaks College where she integrated Froebel’s gifts, Montessori’s equipment and the McMillan’s fresh air conceptMcMillan Sisters - It is believed that Nursery School in the U.S. blossomed because of the dedicated work of these sisters.
15 Nursery Schools con’tThe McMillan’s – They opened clinic for children of the slums of England and later added education. Their theory of fresh air, sleep and bathing proved successful when the children of their school were not effected during an outbreak of the measlesThis concept of nursery schools extended to the U.S.
16 Nursery Schools con’tSusan Isaacs’ influence is felt in schools today – Her philosophy emphasized the child’s point of view and the notionof play as the child’s work.