3 Turkish Educational System The National Education System, determined by National Education Basic Act No. 1739, consists of two main parts, namely “formal education” and “non-formal education”.Turkish Educational SystemFormal Educationİnformal Education
4 FORMAL EDUCATİONFormal education is the regular education conducted within a school for individuals in a certain age group and at the same level, under programs developed in accordance with the purpose. Formal education includes pre-primary, primary, secondary and higher education institutions.
6 Pre-Primary Education Pre-primary education; involves the education of children in the age group of 3 to 5 (36-72 months)who have not reached the age of compulsory primary education, on an optional basis. Pre-primary education institutions may be established as independent kindergartens or, where considered necessary, as nursery classes within a primary education school or as practice classes affiliated to other related education institutions.
7 The objective of pre-primary education is to ensure that children develop physically, mentally and emotionally and acquire good habits, that they are prepared for primary education, that a common environment of upbringing is provided for children who come from a disadvantaged background and that they speak Turkish properly and correctly. Pre-Primary education institutions are opened as independent kindergartens and as nursery classes and practical classes within formal and non-formal education institutions with suitable physical capacity.
8 Primary EducationPrimary education involves the education and training of children in the age group of 6 to 13. Primary education is compulsory for all male and female citizens and is free at State schools. The objective of primary education is to ensure that every Turkish child acquires the necessary knowledge, skills, behavior and habits to become a good citizen and is raised in accordance with the concept of national morals and that he/she is prepared for life and for the next level of education in accordance with his/her interests, talents and capabilities.
9 In the last educational semester of primary education, necessary studies are carried out by guidance services in order to inform students on which schools and programmes in secondary education pave the way to which professions and the living standards these professions shall provide to them. Primary education institutions consist of eightyear schools where continuous education is provided and primary education diplomas are awarded to the graduating students.
11 Secondary EducationSecondary education includes all the teaching institutions with at least four years of education such as general, vocational and technical ones. The aims and duties of secondary education, in accordance with the general purposes and basic principles of National Education, are as follows;
12 Enabling all students to have the awareness and power to get to know the problems of people and the society, to look for solutions and to contribute to the economic, social and cultural development of the country with the provision of a minimum amount of common world knowledge.
13 General Secondary Education Vocational and Technical Secondary Education
14 General Secondary Education It is a four-year educational process that prepares students both for higher education and for the future according to their interests, expectations and abilities in addition to equipping them with world knowledge with an education based on primary education.
15 Vocational and Technical Secondary Education It is a four-year educational process that prepares students both for higher education and for the future as well as for an occupation and job fields according to their interests, expectations and abilities in addition to equipping them with world knowledge with an education based on primary education.
16 Higher EducationHigher education includes all the educational institutions which are based on secondary education, and which provide at least two years of higher education. The aims and duties of secondary education, in accordance with the general purposes and basic principles of National Education, are as follows;
17 Higher education institutions Universities,Faculties,Institutes,CollegesConservatoriesVocational CollegesCenter for Practice and Research
18 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONIn accordance with the general objectives and basic principles of national education, the objectives of non-formal education, which covers citizens who have never entered the formal education system or are at any level of it or have left at that level, and which may accompany formal education or be independent
21 SPECIAL EDUCATİON IN TURKEY Special education is continued by the Ministry of National Education in Turkey. Special education covers children between the ages of 0-21 who show some differences from other children because of their physical, mental, psychological, emotional or social characteristics and cannot, therefore, benefit from the regular education services
22 Education of the disabled children is a subject of concern for the Ministry of National Education, according to the principle of “Equality of Opportunity and in Education”.
23 In Turkey, educational services are provided in special education schools to children and young people in five groups: the visual impaired, the hearing impaired, the orthopedic impaired, the mentally impaired and children with long-term illness. Of the children in all groups, those in a suitable condition are included in mainstreaming (integration) education in normal schools and benefit from education services through special education classes and supportive education.
24 Educational services are provided in special education schools to children and young people in five groupsthe visual impairedthe hearing impairedThe orthopedic impairedthe mentally impairedchildren with long-term illness
25 The basic principle of special education which has adopted along with the new legislation is to plan and carry out the services without isolating individuals with special education needs from their social and physical environment. Also in all those impairment groups, the children who meet the criteria are taken to adaptation training in normal schools and make use of education services through special education classes and supplementary education.
26 Adaptation education refers to disabled individual’ s sustaining education in regular or separate classes where peers that are not inadequate study. But there are some children who cannot benefit from education due to several reasons though they need special education.
27 SPECIAL EDUCATION APPLICATIONS IN DIFFERENT EDUCATIONAL LEVELS
28 Preschool Education of Children with special needs In Turkey pre-school education is an obligation for months old children whose requirements for special education are defined.
29 Applications In Primary School Mainstreaming in Primary schoolSpecial Education classPrep class before integrationSpecial Education Schools.Hospital schoolsSpecial Education Support with programsOpen primary schools
30 Special Education Schools Primary education schools for the visually impairedPrimary education schools for the hearing impairedPrimary education schools for the orthopedic impairedHospital primary education schoolsPrivate Special Education schools
31 Applications in High School Integration in High SchoolSpecial High SchoolsOpen High SchoolsOpen Vocational High SchoolsIntegration in Vocational and Technical High Schools
32 Special Education High Schools Multi-program high schools for the hearing impairedVocational high schools for the physically disabledPrinting house and evening art school for the visual impairedJob Training Centers (for mentally impaired adultsEducation and application schools (for trainable mentally impaired)
33 Educational Support Services Science and Art Centers (for gifted)Special Education and rehabilitation centers (supporting services)Center for Special Education and Rehabilitation (RAM)
34 Science and Art Centers It is the independent special educational institution which is designed with the aim of having gifted children gain awareness of their individual talents, improve their potential and make the most of it without interrupting their education in formal educational institutions.
35 Special Education and rehabilitation centers (supporting services) They are the private educational institutions which function with the goal of eliminating problems resulting from difficulties in speaking and language development, voice defects, mental, physical, auditory, social, emotional deficiencies or behavioral disorders, taking their abilities to upper levels again, improving their self-care and independent living skills and ensuring their adaptation into the society.
36 These institutions are providing many different services and support. These institutions able to provide support just for children are contunue formal education.There institutions have limeted teaching hours in a week.Ministry of Education paying usd for each student to these institutions for the services provided.
37 Center for Special Education and Rehabilitation (RAM) Individual educational evaluation and diagnostics, created by the Board of Special Education Evaluation objective, standardized tests, and individual characteristics are appropriate measuring tools in Guidance Research Centers (RAM).
38 Center for Special Education and Rehabilitation (RAM) is just middle of the system While individual diagnosing; medical evaluation report as well as mental, physical, emotional, social, developmental history, characteristics of all development areas, in the academic fields qualifications, training, performance, needs, access to education and duration of the child's individual progress report prepared by the teacher in the school is registered taken into consideration
39 individual with special needs, of the according to the results educational assessment and diagnosis are decided at least restricted educational environment and the instruction plan, including special education services and special education assessment report is prepared
40 Special Education Services Board, a special education assessment report in accordance with the individual in need of special education in public school or institution the appropriate placesThese application automatically happening after special education assessment report published.
41 Guidance and research centers, to help fulfill the task of educational assessment and diagnosis, and corporate data, the Ministry of Education electronic information system "MEBBIS" over the entries made on the internet that "RAM Module" has been prepared.
42 physical, mental, psychological, emotional differences Pre-PrimaryPrimarySecondary3 years old years oldphysical, mental, psychological, emotional differencesHealty reportMainstreamingPrimerySecondarySpecial Education SchoolsHospital schoolsHome educationPlacesRAMdiagnosticsSpecial Education Support ServicesSpecial Education and rehabilitation centersScience and Art Centers
43 Type of schoolSchool/ Class/institutionNumber Of StudentsNumber of TeachersClassroomTotalMaleFemaleKindergartens within Special Education Schools12289051637419328165205Primary School for the Hearing-Impaired493804215716471121571550670Primary School for the Visually-Impaired161362793569445225220293Hospital Primary School53-1035152Primary School for the Orthopedic-Impaired3545294251110337756Primary School for the Light Levels of EducableMentally Impaired2792178510071189519671Training Center for Autistic Children (PrimaryEducation)2 0661 629437683268415548Children with Adaptation Problems (Primary Education)16520411
44 Classroom Type of school School/ Class/institution Number Of Students Number of TeachersClassroomTotalMaleFemale1435Special Education Class (Primary Education)-20 958129398019Inclusive Education (Primary Education)8430953584Special Education Vocational High School (OrthopedicImparied)297692839119Special Education Vocational High School (HearingImparied )2120531 282771353221132148Training School (VocationalSecondary Education) ( Light Levels of EducableMentally Impaired)8959494 0271 922545240305273Inclusive Education (Secondary Education)1086067444116Total of Special Education, Formal Education714199513122874766398189351546745694
45 Type of schoolSchool/ Class/institutionNumber Of StudentsNumber of TeachersClassroomJob Training Centers for theMedium and High Level of Educable Mentally Impaired1354302280414981045153Science and Arts Center (Gifted andTalented Childen))62108075 6565151712454258599Vocational Training Center for Autistic Childen14657512145-Private Special Education School (Non-FormalEducation)11223 63814 2799 359Total of Special Education, Formal Education3233940423 25116 153816505311652Total1037238917146125927929005402049856346