We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byAugusta Wood
Modified over 5 years ago
© CommNet 2013 Education Phase 4 Sustainable food production and processing
© CommNet 2013 Objectives To be able to define factors contributing to sustainable food production and processing. To recognise how agriculture, farming and fishing impacts on the environment. To be aware of some the different initiatives being taken in farming and fishing in the EU to help protect and enhance the environment.
© CommNet 2013 Farming, agricultural and fishery products form a major part of the cultural identity of Europe’s people and regions. Europe has a great diversity in terms of natural environments, climates, fishing and farming practices. A wide range of agricultural products, food and drink products for human consumption and animal feed are produced throughout the EU. Introduction
© CommNet 2013 What is the Common Agricultural Policy? The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) dates back to 1962, when Member States made a commitment to restructuring and increasing food production, which had been damaged as a result of the Second World War. It sets out a range of farming, environmental and rural development activities as well as controlling EU agricultural markets.
© CommNet 2013 The CAP is regularly reviewed to meet new priorities. The proposals for the CAP currently have 3 priorities: viable food production; sustainable management of natural resources; balanced development of rural areas throughout the EU.
© CommNet 2013 Following a debate in the European Parliament and the Council, the approval of the different regulations and implementing acts is expected by the end of 2013. The CAP reform is planned to be in place as from 1st January 2014. The CAP is due to be reformed.
© CommNet 2013 Food security is one of the major challenges worldwide in the years ahead, with global food demand forecast to rise by 70% by 2050 (FAO 2009). Food production will have to be maintained and capacity increased to help meet demand. Food security
© CommNet 2013 The main challenge in the future is not only to produce more, but also to do this in a sustainable way. What does sustainable mean?
© CommNet 2013 Agriculture Climate and geography have a big influence on the agricultural use of the land. As a result, the choice of animal and plant production varies from region to region across Europe. Some regions have terrain and land cover that allow almost all the land surface to be used for agriculture. In others, a harsh climate, dense forest cover or altitude may mean that very little land area can be used in this way.
© CommNet 2013 Half of the surface area of the EU is used for agricultural purposes, therefore agriculture is very important to the EU’s natural environment.
© CommNet 2013 Sustainable agriculture What is it? Sustainable agriculture has been defined as an integrated system of plant and animal production that will last over the long time, to satisfy human food needs and enhance natural resources. It uses non-renewable resources efficiently; sustains the economic viability of farms and enhances the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole. It is the practice of farming using principles which respect ecology and save natural resources.
© CommNet 2013 Farming There is a wide variety of farming in the EU, including intensive, conventional and organic farming. The CAP is designed to support farming that provides food security (in a context of climate change) and promote balanced development across all Europe's rural areas, including those where production conditions are difficult.
© CommNet 2013 Sustainable farming There are many ways to improve the sustainability of a farming system. These vary from country to country, region to region. Farmers trying to take a more sustainable approach share some common practices. These include: pest management – using biological, physical ways and chemicals to reduce health and environmental risks; rotational grazing – animals are moved regularly to new pasture to allow fields to regenerate;
© CommNet 2013 soil conservation – help prevent loss of soil due to wind and water erosion; water conservation – water conservation helps improve water quality and protects wetlands; cover crops – growing plants like clover after harvesting a crop provides helps weed and erosion control, improve soil nutrients and soil quality; Sustainable farming
© CommNet 2013 nutrient management - management of nutrients (e.g. nitrogen) improves the soil and protects the environment. Using more nutrients like manure from the farm reduces the need to buy fertilizer; marketing - farmers often find that better marketing is a good way to make more profit e.g. farmers markets; Sustainable farming
© CommNet 2013 crop/landscape diversity - growing a variety of crops reduces risks from extremes in weather or crop pests; it also helps with soil conservation, wildlife habitat and increased populations of good insects. Sustainable farming
© CommNet 2013 Aquaculture Aquaculture is the farming of fish, shellfish and aquatic plants like algae. It is one of the world's fastest growing food sectors, and already provides the planet with about half of all the fish we eat. In Europe, aquaculture accounts for almost 20% of fish production.
© CommNet 2013 Fishing The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the EU. It sets out the following: rules to ensure Europe's fisheries are sustainable and do not damage the marine environment; ways to enforce these rules and punish offenders; support for the development of EU aquaculture (fish, seafood and algae farms); help for producers, processors and distributors get a fair price for their produce.
© CommNet 2013 Sustainable fishing There are three types of fishing rules: fishing effort limitations - restrict the size of the fleet and the amount of time it can spend fishing; total allowable catch limits - restrict the quantity of fish that can be taken from the sea; technical measures - regulate how and where fishers can fish. They can, for example, be used to protect young fish (juveniles), encourage the use of more selective fishing gear or prevent serious damage to the marine environment.
© CommNet 2013 Technical measures is a term for the range of rules governing how and where fishers may fish. Technical measures include: minimum landing sizes for fish; minimum mesh sizes for nets; closed fishing areas and seasons; limits on by-catches (catches of unwanted or non-target species); requirement to use more selective fishing gear (to reduce unwanted by-catch); measures to prevent damage to the marine environment.
© CommNet 2013 Bycatch and discards Discarding is the practice of returning unwanted catches to the sea dead or alive. In the EU, the rejected and often dead fish and shellfish that are thrown back do not have to be counted against quotas. Many people think this is wrong and should be reduced or stopped. In February 2013 the European Parliament voted to ban discards and to have greater control over the fishing of endangered stocks.
© CommNet 2013 Aquaculture methods European aquaculture uses a variety of methods. Extensive fish farming is carried out all over Europe. Natural or artificial ponds are cleaned and fertilised to provide a good breeding environment for fish. Shellfish farming uses the natural environment to provide nutrients for the shellfish born in the wild.
© CommNet 2013 Restocking hatcheries are used in the sea and fresh water. The hatcheries provide fertilised fish eggs. They control living conditions to grow the young fish. They are then released into the natural environment. Intensive freshwater farming uses special tanks in rivers. The fish develop in the tanks until they are ready for market. Aquaculture methods
© CommNet 2013 Intensive sea farming the most traditional sea farming uses floating cages. Fish are held in a large pocket-shaped net anchored to the bottom and kept on the surface by a rectangular or circular floating framework. Used for salmon faming. Another type of sea farming uses tanks on land filled with sea water. Used mainly for flat fish species. Aquaculture methods
© CommNet 2013 Aquaculture in the future There is already a huge amount of aquaculture taking place in European coastal waters and it is expensive to transport sea water to land based farms. Therefore a new system called offshore mariculture is being developed. The fish cages are submerged in deep sea water off shore. It is technically difficult because of the depth of the sea, weather patterns and the current.
© CommNet 2013 Other factors affecting food sustainability Climate change There is now evidence about climate change. Concerns for European agriculture and farming are: decreasing average annual and seasonal rainfall will be a serious problem in many regions; more sudden heatwaves, droughts, storms and floods across the EU.
© CommNet 2013 Food industry The production of food from farm to fork triggers environmental issues. Think about the number of people that are involved in food production. Here are some: FarmersSuppliersTransport Retailers Consumers Manufacturers Waste managers All of them have a role to play in producing sustainable food and reducing the impact on the environment.
© CommNet 2013 Environmental sustainability across the food chain ElementAreas of concern Raw materialsAgriculture accounts for a big part of the environmental impact along the food chain. It impacts on water, air quality, climate, soil and bio-diversity. Raw material and waste management Using materials as efficiently as possible and to reduce waste. Reuse, recycling and recovery. Energy and climate change Reducing the energy used in the food and drink industry will help to reduce impact on climate change. WaterWater is used extensively in agriculture, manufacturing and processing. The industry are exploring ways to reduce water use. PackagingReducing packaging without affecting quality, safety, and consumer needs. Effective recycling. Transport /distributionReducing transportation – fewer and friendlier miles. ConsumersEnergy used for shopping by car, food storage and preparation. Food waste.
© CommNet 2013 Foresight report – The Future of Food and Farming: Challenges and choices for global sustainability Over 400 experts and stakeholders from about 35 countries were involved in the development of the report. The report identifies the key drivers of change affecting the food system, including changes in values and ethical stances of consumers. Government Office for Science (2011)
© CommNet 2013 It also identifies five key challenges for the global food system: balancing future demand and supply sustainably – to ensure that food supplies are affordable; ensuring there is adequate stability in food supplies – and protecting the most vulnerable from the volatility that does occur; achieving global access to food and ending hunger (food security for all); managing the contribution of the food system to the mitigation of climate change; maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services while feeding the world. The Foresight report
© CommNet 2013 Education Phase 4 Sustainable food production and processing
SCIENCE,SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE E.U.
Ad Hoc Working Group on The World at 7 Billion and Beyond: Promoting a Forward-Looking Vision of People-Centred Development POSSIBLE ROLE FOR FAO relating.
Are you sinking…? or Are you thinking…? Biodiverse Farming and Soil Management Bennie Diedericks.
Food Security Prepared By :Rana Hassan Supervised By :Dr. Raed Alkowni
© CommNet 2013 Education Phase 3 Sustainable food production.
Fishery management: Wild and farmed fish Frank Asche IRIS,
Conclusions: Diversity and Ecosystem Function
Sustainability read What is Sustainable Agriculture… AGST 3000 Agriculture,
Professor John Agard UWI Environment in Development.
© CommNet 2013 Education Phase 3 Food production – farm to fork.
Introductions BIOL1040 Environmental Science.
OBLIGATIONS TO PROTECT MARINE ECOSYSTEMS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND OTHER LEGAL INSTRUMENTS Transform Aqorau Scientific Symposium of the Reykjavik.
Next End. organic farming NextEnd Previous Organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers,
Food, sustainability and climate change
Food and Agriculture Chapter 15.
The NFU champions British farming and provides professional representation and services to its farmer and grower members Sustainable Intensification The.
CHAPTER 6 HUMANS IN THE BIOSPHERE
Humans in the Biosphere
How do we influence the environment?
© 2021 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.