Overview The Catholic Church Dominated the social, political and economic trends of the Middle Ages. Popes continually gained more power and acted like kings instead of religious leaders. Constant battles for power between Popes and Kings
The Division of the Catholic Church A series of events within the Catholic Church cause chaos and actually effect the common worshipper in the Church Most battles between Popes and Kings were mainly political and had minor effects on the common churchgoers
Pope Boniface VIII 1302 “Unam Sanctium” this basically claimed that “all are subject to the Pope” This was an attempt to reinforce Papal authority. This was to prevent Kings from France and England from taking Church money by way of the state taxing the Church. (The Church was the wealthiest institution) King Philip states that the Kings protect the faith and therefore taxing the Church is justified.
Power means Control King Philip IV of France came down and captured Boniface…… Boniface “conveniently” died soon after being captured. Philip, with his whole military in Rome, influenced the Cardinals in to appoint a French Pope.
The Babylonian Captivity 1303 – 1377 the Pope moved from Rome to Avignon, France. This made the institution of the Pope a nationalistic object. It looked like the French had control of the institution of the Pope. No non-French popes were appointed
The Great Schism There is a division within the Church. French Cardinals vote for a French Pope and non-French Cardinals vote for a Pope that lived in Rome. This continues for several Papal elections The two Popes essentially competed against each other.
Reactions to the Great Schism People did not know which Pope to follow. Which Pope spoke for God? How did they know they were following the “right” Pope. Men, such as John Wycliff and John Hus, claim that people only need to read the Bible and the church is not needed. The Great Schism made the Church questionable.
The Council of Constance, 1417 All Popes were forced to resign, there were 3 at the time. That was because an earlier Council had appointed one and the other two Popes did not listen to him. Pope Martin V was selected
Religious Chaos Because of the Chaos within the Catholic Church, the Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism set the Stage for the Reformation. These events allow for the Church to be criticized and that there is doubt in the churches infallibility.