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Chapter 17: Nonrenewable Energy

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Nonrenewable Energy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17: Nonrenewable Energy
17.1 Energy Resources and Fossil Fuels 17.2 Nuclear Energy

2 Key Terms Fossil fuels Electric generator Petroleum Oil reserves
Nuclear energy Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion

3 17.1 Energy Resources and Fossil Fuels
List five factors that influence the value of a fuel Explain how fuels are used to generate electricity in an electric power plant Id patterns of energy consumption and production in the world and in the United States Explain how fossil fuels form and how they are used. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of fossil-fuel use. List 3 factors that influence predictions of fossil-fuel production.

4 Energy Resources and Fossil Fuels
Most of the energy we use today came from the sun 200 million years ago in the form of natural resources or fossil fuels Fossil Fuels- remains of ancient organisms that changed into coal, oil or natural gas Two problems: They are limited Environmental impact to obtaining them Need to find alternative energy sources or better ways to use them!!

5 Fuels for Different Uses
Transportation, manufacturing, heating and cooling buildings, generating electricity Suitability of fuel depends on- availability, safety, byproducts, cost and supply/demand (jet fuel vs wood)

6 Electricity- Power on Demand
Most is converted into electrical energy because it is more convenient to use But it has difficulties- Difficult to store Have to use other energy resources to generate it (cost)

7 How is Electricity Generated?
Electric Generator- machine that converts mechanical energy, or motion, into electrical energy. Use a Turbine- wheel that changes the force of moving gas of liquid into energy that can do work. Power plants- 1. water is boiled to produce steam that turn the turbine 2. Water is heated by burning fuel in coal-fired and gas fired plants or by fission of uranium in nuclear plants 3. Turbine spins a generator to produce electricity.

8 Coal- Fired Power Plant
How do you make electricity from coal - animated video (9mins)

9 Energy Use Every thing we use today requires the use of energy to make the cost of energy is reflected in the price World patterns: developed countries use more energy US and Canada use more than Japan or Switzerland-> yet incomes are flipped Dependent on how energy is generated and used in each country


11 Energy use in the US Uses more energy per person than any other country besides Canada and United Arab Emirates 25% goes to transport goods and people, while Japan and Switzerland has rail system in addition they use hydroelectric or nuclear power

12 How Fossil- Fuel Deposits Form
Dependent on Geologic history Coal Formation- remains of plants that lived in swamps hundreds of MYA. Today’s coal formed 300 to 250 mya Oil and Natural Gas Formation – the decay of tiny marine organism that accumulated on the bottom of the ocean mya, most is located in Alaska, Texas, California, Gulf of Mexico

13 Coal Tends to be inexpensive and little refining
More than ½ of our electricity comes from coal-fired power plants Coal Mining and the Environment- surface and subsurface, air pollution(sulfur/acid rain), water pollution EPA webpage

14 Petroleum Oil pumped from the ground or crude oil
Locating oil deposits: Gets trapped into Earth as it moves, commonly found in folds, faults, salt domes that are bound by impermeable layers Mostly found in Middle East Large deposits are also in US, Venezuela, North Sea, Siberia, Nigeria Use exploration wells to determine volume if show profitable rate will remove and send off to be refined into fuels and other products

15 Environmental Effects of using Oil
When burned they will release pollutants. Vehicles release pollutants when burning oil, produce smog and can cause health problems Catalytic converters reduce air pollution Old car produce more sulfur leads to acid rain, also release of carbon dioxide increase global warming Oil spills- require tankers to be doubled hulled, increase response time to clean up Cars leaking oil getting into waterways

16 Natural Gas- methane (CH4)
About 20% of the world’s nonrenewable energy comes from natural gas. In past it was just burned off and not used “clean” energy Now store in pipelines and compressed tanks


18 Fossil Fuels and The Future
90% of the energy used in developed countries By 2050 the demand will have doubled due to increase populations and industry cause the cost to also increase need to find alternative energy resources Predicting Oil Production- Oil reserves- oil deposits that can be extracted profitably at current prices using current technology Need new technologies to find new reserves and be extracted Relative cost of obtaining fuels influences the amount of fossil fuels that we extract from Earth

19 Future Oil Reserves No large reserves have been discovered in the past decade Was expected to peak by 2010 Many reserves are in the ocean but it is too difficult to drill and more expensive, need for new technologies or would be too expensive

20 17.2 Nuclear Energy Describe nuclear fission
Describe how a nuclear power plant works List 3 advantages and 3 disadvantages of nuclear energy

21 17.2 Nuclear Energy ’s energy of the future, its was clean and there was a lot of it ’s canceled 120 plans for plants, 40 were partly constructed and abandoned Only 17% of worlds energy comes from Nuclear Energy today (2004)

22 Fission: Splitting Atoms
Nuclear energy- the energy within the nucleus of an atom Nuclear fission- splitting of the atom by bombarded with neutrons (Uranium 235) 15 mins 3 mins funny

23 How Nuclear Energy Works
Nuclear reactor is surrounded by a thick pressure vessel that is filled with a cooling fluid Pressure vessel is designed to contain the fission products in case of an accident Thick concrete walls also surround reactors Reactor- metal fuel rods that contain solid uranium pellets are bombarded with neutrons ( Chain reaction occurs to release more energy

24 How Nuclear Energy Works
6. Reactor core contains control rods (made of boron or cadmium) will absorb the neutrons to prevent an uncontrolled chain reaction (lowered between fuel rods slows reaction if lowered completely it will stop) 7. Heat release during nuclear reaction is used to generate electricity 8. Energy released heats a closed loop of water that heats another body of water, that boils and will produce steam ant that steam will drive the turbine generates electricity

25 Nuclear Power Plant 7mins

26 The Advantages of Nuclear Energy
Concentrated No air pollution Release less radioactivity than coal-fired France generates ¾ of its electricity, produces less than 1/5 of air pollution per person than the US, US uses 70% on Fossil fuels

27 Why Aren’t We Using More Nuclear Energy?
Expensive to build “safe” reactors Cost more than $3,000 per kilowatt of electrical capacity, wind power $1,000, natural gas is $600 Store Waste- Where do we put the radioactive waste when we are done?? Must be geologically stable for tens of thousand of years Yucca mountain in Southern Nevada Transmutation- recycle radioactive elements in nuclear fuel

28 Safety Concerns Poor design get out of control
Chernobyl in Ukraine in worst nuclear reactor accident, Engineers turned off most of the reactor’s safety devices to conduct an unauthorized test. The test caused explosions that destroyed the reactor and blasted tons of radioactive materials into the air Many died from radiation exposure Areas of Northern Europe and Ukraine still contaminated

29 Safety Concerns Us does not sue that type of model
In 1979 the Three Mile Island nuclear pp in Pennsylvania, Human error and blocked valves and broken pumps, only small amounts of radioactive gas escaped ** US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has required more than 300 safety improvements to nuclear power plants

30 Inside Chernobyl 16mins
Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident Documentary Film (46 mins)

31 The Future of Nuclear Power
Fusion- lightweight atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus and release tremendous amount of energy Same energy that powers stars Potentially a safer energy source than fission it creates less dangerous radioactive wastes Technical difficulty of achieving it is difficult Atomic nuclei must be heated to extremely high temperatures Nuclei must be maintained at very high concentrations and properly confined Must be done simultaneously and its extremely difficult  most likely will never happen Fission vs fusion-

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