8 Has no fixed volume or shape. GasHas no fixed volume or shape.Takes the shape and volume of its container.Examples:Air, helium, natural gas, oxygen
9 Physical PropertiesThe characteristics of matter that can be changed without changing its composition or doesn’t involve changing its composition. It’s an adjective.Characteristics that are directly observable.Examples:Odor, color, volume, state (s, l, or g), density, melting point, and boiling point
10 A substance’s ability to form new substances. Chemical PropertiesA substance’s ability to form new substances.The characteristics that determine how the composition of matter changes as a result of contact with other matter or the influence of energy. It’s an adjective.Characteristics that describe the behavior of matter.Examples:Flammability, steelwill rust, and Food willdigest
11 Ethyl alcohol will boil at 78°C Hardness of a diamond Concept CheckClassify each of the following as a physical or chemical property.Ethyl alcohol will boil at 78°CHardness of a diamondSugar will ferment to form ethyl alcoholphysicalchemicalEthyl alcohol boiling at 78°CPhysical property: boiling point is associated with a phase change. It describes an inherent characteristic of alcohol.Hardness of a diamond.Physical property: describes an inherent characteristic of diamond – hardness.Sugar fermenting to form ethyl alcohol.Chemical property: describes behavior of sugar – forming a new substance (ethyl alcohol) through a chemical reaction.
12 Boiling or freezing water Physical ChangeChange in the form of a substance, not in its chemical composition. It’s a verb.Example:Boiling or freezing water
13 Chemical ChangeA given substance becomes a new substance or substances with different properties and different composition. It’s a verb.Example:Bunsen burner (methane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water)
23 Have variable composition. Examples Wood, wine, coffee, granite MixturesHave variable composition.ExamplesWood, wine, coffee, graniteCan be separated into pure substances: elements and/or compounds using physical processes.
24 Having visibly indistinguishable parts. A solution. Homogeneous MixtureSame throughout.Having visibly indistinguishable parts.A solution.Does not vary in composition from one region to another.Apple Juice Cranberry Juice Orange Juice
25 Homogeneous Mixture – Examples Air around youBrassTable salt stirred into water
26 Heterogeneous Mixture Having visibly distinguishable parts.Contains regions that have different properties from those of other regions.
33 Filtration Reverse Osmosis Separates a liquid from a solid. Separates a liquid from a solution. See Chapter 15.
34 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Maxwell House decaffeinates its coffee using pure water and natural effervescence. (1978)See Chapter 15.A method of making reduced oil content in food chip products, such as potato chips and corn chips, includes circulating liquid carbon dioxide, over the food chip products to extract oil. Reduction of oil content to less than 50% of its initial value, including reductions to 25%, may be achieved while retaining flavor and texture comparable to conventional deep fried chips having an oil content of 30% to 40%. The oil whichis recovered from the liquid carbon dioxideused for extraction has an appearance andquality which are substantially the same asvirgin frying oil and may be reused to deepfry chips.SCF unit