Summary Heart failure (sometimes known as congestive heart failure [CHF]) is a serious condition in which the heart is not pumping efficiently. It is a chronic condition that is the result of other cardiac conditions.
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 In the late stages of heart failure, the heart is unable to meet the body’s demand for oxygen. In addition, it may cause congestion in the lungs or other problems throughout the body. As a result of the lack of oxygen–rich blood flowing to the body, the heart tries to work harder, which only makes the problem worse.
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 In the early stages, heart failure may not have any symptoms. In the later stages, the patient may have severe symptoms because their weakened heart is unable to pump enough oxygen–rich blood with each contraction to satisfy the body. These symptoms may include shortness of breath (dyspnea) that initially occurs only during exercise, and later even while at rest. shortness of breathexercise
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 Heart failure is a chronic and complex condition. By itself, heart failure is not considered a disease. Rather, it is the result of other conditions that damaged the heart. These other conditions include diseases of the coronary arteries that lay on the surface of the heart, heart valve disorders, high blood pressure and damage to the heart muscle itself.high blood pressure
Condition That Could Lead to Heart Failure Coronary artery disease (CAD) Coronary artery disease Arrhythmia Heart attack (myocardial infarction) Heart attack High blood pressure (hypertension) High blood pressure
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 Condition That Could Lead to Heart Failure Cardiomyopathy Valvular heart disease Congenital heart disease Pulmonary hypertension
In addition to these classifications, heart failure may be defined by how it affects patients. The new York heart association has developed a system that defines heart failure by the functional limitation it imposes on the patient. These levels are as follows (with approximate percentage of patients)new York heart association
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 New York Heart Association Class I: no obvious symptoms, no limitations on patient physical activity (35 percent of heart failure patients).. Class II: some symptoms during or after normal activity, mild physical activity limitations (35 percent of heart failure patients)..
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 Class III: symptoms with mild exertion, moderate to significant physical activity limitations (25 percent of heart failure patients).. Class IV: significant symptoms at rest, severe to total physical activity limitations (5 percent of heart failure patients).
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 The AHA/ACC Stages Stage A: the patient at high risk for heart failure, but has no heart abnormalities.. Stage B: the patient has structural abnormalities of the heart, particularly the left ventricle, but no symptoms..
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 The AHA/ACC Stages Stage C: the patient has past or present symptoms associated with heart failure.. Stage D: the patient has end–stage heart disease, requiring specialized treatment (e.G., Continuous intravenous (IV) drug therapy, left ventricular assist device, heart transplant) or severely symptomatic heart failure.left ventricular assist deviceheart transplant
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure Shortness of breath (dyspnea). Shortness of breath Swelling (edema) of the legs.edema Swollen neck veins.veins Abdominal discomfort such as swelling, pain or nausea.
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure Mental confusion. Racing or pounding heartbeat (palpitations)..palpitations Kidney malfunction or failure (in the later stages of heart failure). Kidney
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 Physical Examination Heart murmur A crackling sound of fluid in the lungs (rales), A rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) or abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmias).tachycardiaarrhythmias
Dean Handimulya UIEU 2005 Physical Examination Swelling and fluid retention (edema) in the liver or gastrointestinal tract (in advanced stages of heart failure). Hypertrophy or enlargement of the heart. Hypertrophy Liver malfunction.