2 General Information Computer Skills - 2013 Course Website : Textbook Eyad AlshareefCourse Website :TextbookComputer SkillsTextbook Cover
3 Chapter 1: Introduction To Computer Eyad Alshareef
4 Chapter 1: Introduction To Computer Eyad AlshareefDefinition of Computers.Benefits (functions) of Computers.Computer hardware.Operating systems (their definition and functions).Classification of computersComputer Problems and VirusesDefinition of data, information and knowledge.
5 What is Computer A computer is a programmable machine. Eyad AlshareefA computer is a programmable machine.general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations.The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945 in the United Kingdom and United States.See Page # 3
6 A Computer System (Contd.) In general, a computer is a machine which accepts data, processes it and returns new information as output.ProcessingDataInformation
14 Input Unit used to provide data and control signals to a Computer. Eyad Alshareefused to provide data and control signals to a Computer.Provide data in a form understandable by computer (Computer Language)Main examples Keyboard and mouse
15 Input Unit Keyboard Mouse Eyad AlshareefKeyboardhas characters printed on the keys and each pressDifferent buttons with different types and functionsTo know Keyboard buttons types see page 8 figure 4.Mouseis a pointing device that functions by detecting two- dimensional motion
17 Input Unit Sample Questions What is the main purpose of input Unit. Eyad AlshareefSample QuestionsWhat is the main purpose of input Unit.List 3 examples of Input DevicesThe main examples of Input devices areOne of the following is an example of Input devices
18 Output UnitEyad Alshareefused to communicate the results of data processing carried out by the processing unit.converts the electronically generated information into human- readable form.
19 Output devices Examples Eyad AlshareefA monitor What CRT and LCD stands for?Which type is more familiar these days ?See Page # 9
20 Output devices Examples Eyad Alshareef2. Printertransfers data from a computer onto paperCompare between the two main types of printers?
21 Central Processing Unit Eyad AlshareefCPUknown as microprocessor or processorIt is responsible for all functions and processes
22 CPU Components The CPU is comprised of three main parts Eyad AlshareefThe CPU is comprised of three main partsALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)Control Unit (CU)Registers: Stores the data that is to be executed next.
23 ALU which executes all arithmetic and logical operations. Eyad Alshareefwhich executes all arithmetic and logical operations.Arithmetic calculations like as addition, subtraction, multiplication and divisionLogical operation like compare numbers, letters, or special charactersWhat is the different between Arithmetic and logical operations?
24 Control Unit (CU) controls and co-ordinates computer components. Eyad Alshareefcontrols and co-ordinates computer components.Read the code for the next instruction to be executed.Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction.Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory.Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register.If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation.
25 RegistersEyad AlshareefRegisters are temporary storage areas which are responsible for holding the data that is to be processed.Are very fast storage area
26 Memory Unit Main Memory (Primary) Secondary Memory Eyad AlshareefComputer Memory is divided into two main typesMain Memory (Primary)Secondary MemorySee figure 8 Page 13
27 RAM ROM Primary Memory Main Examples of the primary memory are Eyad AlshareefMain Examples of the primary memory areRAMROM
28 RAM Stand for Random Access Memory Eyad AlshareefStand for Random Access Memoryresponsible for storing data on a temporary basis.It is volatile memoryWhat volatile means ?Why the RAM is considered As “Random Access”?
29 ROM Stand for Read Only Memory is a permanent form of storage Eyad AlshareefStand for Read Only Memoryis a permanent form of storageProgrammed at manufacturing time
30 Secondary Memory Stores data and programs permanently Eyad AlshareefStores data and programs permanentlyits retained after the power is turned offMain ExamplesHard DiskOptical DiskFlash memory
31 Hard Disk Called Disk drive or HDD Eyad AlshareefCalled Disk drive or HDDstores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data.Stores data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces.
32 Optical Disk & FlashEyad Alshareefan optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light to store data.There are three main types of optical media: CD, DVD, and Blu-ray discWhat is CD, DVD, Blu-ray stand for?What is the average capacity for each type?
33 RAM V.s Hard DiskEyad AlshareefWhat are the differences between RAM as a main memory and HDD as a Secondary Memory.See Table 2 Page 15
34 Software organized collections of computer data and instructions Eyad Alshareeforganized collections of computer data and instructionstwo major categories:system softwareapplication software
35 System software Known as Operating System Eyad AlshareefKnown as Operating Systemis responsible for controlling, integrating, and managing the individual hardware components of a computer systemWindows is an example of OS.List 3 other example of System Software?
36 Application SoftwareEyad Alshareefis used to accomplish specific tasks other than just running the computer system.Two typessoftware package: single programsoftware suite: multiple program
37 System Software V.s Application Software Eyad AlshareefCompare between System Software and application one based on these factorsDefinitionExamplesUser InteractionDependencySee Table 3 Page 17 to checkup your answer
38 Computer LanguagesEyad Alshareeflanguages that is used to communicate with computers.Two main TypesMachine languageMachine language is referred as the binary languagemachine dependentHigh level languageEasy to write and understand (unlike machine)It was in 1957 that a high level language called FORTRAN was developed by IBMList some examples of High level language?
39 Unit of Measurements - Storage Eyad AlshareefStorage UnitsBitBIT0 or 1ByteB8 bitsKilobyteKB1024 bytesMegabyteMB1024 kilobytesGigabyteGB1024 megabytesTerabyteTB1024 gigabytes
40 Unit of Measurements - Storage Eyad AlshareefSample Question3MB equivalent to ___________ ByteA file with size 3GB required __________ CDs to store itEach symbol in a keyboard like ‘A’ required ____________ to store it?
41 Unit of Measurement -Speed Eyad AlshareefThe speed of CPU measured by unit called Hertz (Hz)1 Hz represent 1 cycle per second.The speed of CPU is known as Computer Speed.
42 Computer Classification Eyad AlshareefComputers can be classified by size and power to:Personal computer (PCs)Workstation:MinicomputerMainframe:SuperComputer
43 Computer Classification Eyad AlshareefCompare between the previous type of computers based onPriceProcessing SpeedStorage CapacityPowerfulSingle-user or Multi-userComputer SizeCompanies size
44 Laptop computer is a portable computer. Eyad Alshareefis a portable computer.personal computer that can be easily carried and used in a variety of locations.run the same software and applications in PCs
45 Laptop computer How is a Laptop Different from a Desktop? Eyad AlshareefHow is a Laptop Different from a Desktop?TouchpadBatteryAC AdapterPortsSee page 22 for more details
46 Netbook ComputerEyad AlshareefA netbook is a type of laptop that is designed to be even more portable.Cheaper and less powerful than laptops or desktops.Why its called as Netbook?Compare between laptop size and Netbook size?
47 Mobile Devices Tablet Computers E-Book Readers Smartphones Eyad AlshareefA mobile device is basically any handheld computer.It is designed to be extremely portable.Some mobile devices are more powerfulTypes:Tablet ComputersE-Book ReadersSmartphones
48 Tablet Computers designed to be portable. Eyad Alshareefdesigned to be portable.The most obvious difference is that tablet computers don't have keyboards or touchpads.Best used for tasks like web browsing, watching videos, reading e- books, and playing games.
49 Tablet ComputersEyad Alshareefsome of the main features that you can expect with a tablet computerMobile OSSolid-State DrivesWi-Fi and 3G/4GBluetoothGive an example of a tablet Computer?Give an example of Tablet OS?
50 E-Book Readers E-Paper display LCD display called e-readers Eyad Alshareefcalled e-readerssimilar to tablet computers, except they are mainly designed for reading e-books (digital, downloadable books)Two TypesE-Paper displayLCD displayWhat is the main difference between these types?Give an example of E-book reader?
51 Smartphones a powerful mobile phone Eyad Alshareefa powerful mobile phonedesigned to run a variety of applications in addition to phone service.Compare it with the tablet?Internet access is an important feature of smartphones. (3G or 4G)(Wi-Fi Service)What a bout PDA?
52 Data, Information and Knowledge Eyad AlshareefData:Facts and figures which relay something specificbut which are not organized in any way and which provide no further information regarding patternsunstructured facts and figures
53 Data, Information and Knowledge Eyad AlshareefInformation:For data to become information, it must be contextualized, categorized, calculated and condensed. (Processing)it is data with relevance and purpose.
54 Data, Information and Knowledge Eyad AlshareefKnowledge:Knowledge is closely linked to doing and implies know-how and understanding.Processing Information
55 Data, Information and Knowledge Eyad AlshareefData: symbolsInformation: data that are processed to be useful; provides answers to "who", "what", "where", and "when" questionsKnowledge: application of data and information; answers "how" questions
57 Data, Information and Knowledge Eyad AlshareefProcessing data produces information, and processing information produces knowledge.
58 Characteristics of Computer Eyad AlshareefSpeed Accuracy Diligence Storage Capability Versatility List some of computer Limitations?See page # 29
59 Computer Problems The Computer Won’t Start The Screen is Blank Eyad AlshareefThe Computer Won’t StartThe Screen is BlankAbnormally Functioning Operating System or SoftwareWindows Won’t BootThe Screen is frozen
60 Computer Problems Computer is Slow Strange Noises Slow Internet Eyad AlshareefComputer is SlowStrange NoisesSlow InternetOverheatingDropped Internet ConnectionsList one action to solve each of the above problem?
62 VirusesEyad AlshareefA computer virus is an application program designed and written to destroy other programs.A virus is a small piece of software that piggybacks on real programsvirus might attach itself to a program such as a spreadsheet programand it has the chance to reproduce (by attaching to other programs)
63 viruses:Eyad Alshareefvirus travels as an attachment to messagesReplicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim's address book.How to a void this type of virus?
64 Trojan horses simply a computer program Eyad Alshareefsimply a computer programThe program claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run itHow this type is different from Viruses?
65 WormsEyad AlshareefA worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself.worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole.
66 How do you know if you have a virus? Malicious SoftwareEyad AlshareefHow do you know if you have a virus?Lack of storage capabilityDecrease in the speed of executing programsUnexpected error messagesHalting the system
67 Tips to avoid viruses and lessen their impact? Eyad AlshareefDelete s from unknown or suspicious, untrustworthy (unreliable) sources, especially those with files attached to an .Never open a file attached to an unless you know what it is, even if it appears to come from a friend.Download files from the Internet only from legitimate and reputable sources.Update your antivirus software at least every two weeks as over 200 viruses are discovered each month.Backup your files periodically
68 Look at chapter Questions Page 34 & 35 The EndEyad AlshareefLook at chapter Questions Page 34 & 35