5 What are we trying to teach? These children possess relatively strong decoding skills, but they lack adequate automaticity for fluent reading.They will work to build fluency in texts that are at or slightly below grade level during small-group time.They will build comprehension through the same texts.Limited word-recognition instruction may be provided.
6 How will we know when we’ve accomplished our goal? When children’s fluency reaches benchmark, we can redirect our tier 2 time to vocabulary and comprehension.Remember that our goal is to make each of our groupings temporary and targeted.
7 In our tiered system, who is likely to need this type of differentiated instruction?
9 DIBELS Second-Grade ORF high risk or some risk DIBELS Second-Grade NWF is low risk We KNOW: These children have mastered short vowel patterns but may need work in more advanced orthographic patterns. (Remember that NWF is limited as an indicator of advanced phonics knowledge.)We NEED to know: Which orthographic patterns they still need help with and which high-frequency words they need to learn.
10 DIBELS Third-Grade ORF high risk or some risk Informal phonics data reveal mastery of most vowel patterns.We KNOW: These children have mastered short vowel patterns but may need work in more advanced patterns.We NEED to know: Which orthographic patterns they still need help with and which high-frequency words they need to learn.
11 Let’s find outGive a phonics or spelling inventory to see which patterns they need.Do a high-frequency word inventory to see which sight words they need.Given their decoding foundation, a limited amount of targeted instruction may be planned around the deficits identified; if the needs here are great, students should be served in a phonics and fluency group.
12 What about comprehension? What about comprehension?Do not attempt to identify comprehension deficits.Using texts that are at or slightly below grade level will provide many opportunities to reinforce comprehension.Children will differ in their ability to apply comprehension strategies, but assessing this ability is not necessary.
13 Now you’re ready! Do you have one group or two? Think about the word recognition data; if possible group children with similar specific needs so that you can address them quickly.Think about how slow their oral reading rate is. Will you be able to use grade-level texts, or will you have to use texts slightly below grade level?
14 Assessment Data (grouped for all) Unknown PatternsHigh-Frequency WordsReading Rate(WCPM)Text LevelBelow grade levelOn grade levelCombining these results will provide you with a collection of known and unknown items for each child; their needs will probably not be exactly the same.
15 To make your plan, start with words and patterns Set aside some time at the beginning of small-group work to address them.Do not worry that the patterns may be more familiar to some group members than to others. Those who are more familiar will benefit from the review.Do not limit yourself toone-syllable words
16 Now find your textsDo not use phonics-controlled texts. You are looking for texts thatare at or slightly below grade level,are rich in content, andrepresent both fiction and nonfiction.Some of these texts may already be provided in your core program!
17 Now find your textsTry to find enough texts that children are reading a new text or a new section of text each day; part of increasing fluency is increasing reading volume.This will allow you to choose longer texts; you can read them over consecutive sessions.
18 Now choose your strategies Since word recognition needs will be minimal, we will not review the methods here. See pp for strategies that target patterns and for strategies that target high-frequency words.Planning should focus mainly on fluency and comprehension; we propose a very simple framework.
19 Now think about fluency procedures Read pages You will need to consider several things: your level of support and strategies for organizing repeated readings.All effective fluency procedures have certain things in common: teacher support and repetition.
20 Remember: the goal is to build fluency Remember: the goal is to build fluency. During each session, you must plan for both repetition for the children and support from the teacher.Most supportLeast supportEchoreadingThe teacher reads a sentence and then the group rereads it aloud.ChoralThe teacher leads the entire group reading aloud in unison.PartnerPairs of readers alternate reading aloud by following a specific turn-taking procedure.WhisperEach child reads aloud (but not in unison) in a quiet voice.
21 Remember that fluency is more than rate! Consider that “reading faster” is not thegoal of fluency building. Fluency includes accuracy, rate, and prosody.Students need teacher modeling of appropriate rate and phrasing.
22 Consider motivational techniques Students may benefit from timing themselves and one another; incorporate such procedures if they serve your main goal – using your small-group time to build fluency through repeated (and assisted) practice.
23 Now think about comprehension methods Read pagesIn order to preserve time for the students in this group to actually read repeatedly, we have chosen one high-utility comprehension strategy that should be useful for most any text.
24 Information Text Narrative Text Summary QuestionsWhat is the most important information so far?Give me a summary of the the most important parts of the section on _____?What are the most important details so far?What were the main events in this chapter/part?How did the chapter/story end?Inference QuestionsDescribe some additional examples of that idea.Explain why these things are similar.What would happen if . . .Describe the feelings of the characters at the end of the story.Why did they feel that way?
25 Remember to be strategic! Your goal is fluency first, and then comprehension. You will not be discussing the text at the end of each page; rather, you will be targeting your questioning at strategic spots, and using repetitive, generic language that students may eventually generalize to other texts.
26 Gather or make all of your materials Word lists, books, question scripts, timer, recording sheets, notebooks – everything you need.Texts could be selections from the previous year’s core anthology if multiple copies are available.They could also include texts used in recent whole-class read-alouds or trade books, if you have multiple copies.Remember that our goal is that you plan for three weeks of wide, repeated, assisted reading at a time.
27 A typical group* 4 minutes Letter or syllable patterns; high-frequency words7 minutesChoral or partner read, then whisper read. Time and chart if appropriateAsk inference or summary questionsIf you can extend the time for this group, add minutes to the children’s reading time.*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 15-minute session.
28 Try it out!Remember that we are hoping for a cycle, with teacher reflection. Your goal is to move these children into a vocabulary and comprehension group, but you’ve got to be successful here first.You may need to repeat a particular lesson for two days. That’s fine. You also may need to step in with echo or choral reading. That’s fine too.At the end of the three weeks, you can use data collected as part of the instruction to inform your next moves.