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… a rose by any other name Internet videoconferencing IP-based videoconferencing (Internet Protocol) Web-based videoconferencing Desktop video conferencing.

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Presentation on theme: "… a rose by any other name Internet videoconferencing IP-based videoconferencing (Internet Protocol) Web-based videoconferencing Desktop video conferencing."— Presentation transcript:


2 … a rose by any other name Internet videoconferencing IP-based videoconferencing (Internet Protocol) Web-based videoconferencing Desktop video conferencing as opposed to (but still existing) System-based or room-based videoconferencing VTC (video teleconferencing) Telephony (POTS) videoconferencing

3 Use in dedicated room Use of ISDN or T1 lines High installation costs High usage costs Usage at plateau Resource scheduling Technical operator Centralized control H.320 standard Ubiquity – use anywhere Leverages internet usage Low installation costs No/Low usage costs Growing acceptance Impromptu, ad hoc nature Self-sufficiency model Decentralized control H.323 standard Traditional vs. Internet

4 What is it? two-way or more (multipoint) video & audio communication over a standard high speed internet connection with standard quality of 30 frame per second video quality using unique IP addresses for reliable high speed internet connection (450kbps) … some agreed upon basics

5 Long existing opinions: Videoconferencing was a “next-year” technology Limited application but not mainstream Fine for Boardroom but not the classroom Technologies were too cumbersome or too expensive and loses the power of the face-to-face presence

6 Long existing proposal: 1964 Worlds Fair in New York AT&T unveils the "PicturePhone“ to the public AT&T vision: PicturePhone centers nationwide (New York, Chicago) Estimated rate of $30 for a three-minute call Installed only at AT&T centers Very worst of traditional VTC proposals By 1970’s AT&T had extremely limited deployment, so they revamped for business taking and took video out of the Picturephone.

7 The 1970’s Ericsson (Sweden) successfully demonstrates the trans-Atlantic LME video telephone call 1973: Network Voice Protocol (NVP) released by the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of USC (U. of Southern California pioneered a computer network protocol for transporting human speech over a packetized communication network. an early example of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology. 1976: Nippon Telegraph and Telephone establishes videoconferencing bridge between Tokyo and Osaka Infrastructure, bandwidth, & acceptance all lacking

8 The Big Eighties Packet Video Protocol (PVP) in 1981 extensions to NVP that standardize transmission protocol for video 1982: IBM Japan/US build 48,000 bps internal VTC links 1982 - Compression Labs introduces VTC product $250,000 per unit with dedicated line cost = $1,000 per hour system commonly trips simple 15 amp circuit breakers 1986 - PictureTel introduces their VC offering $80,000 per unit with dedicated lines at $100 per hour beginning deployment in corporate environments AT&T continues (estimated R&D costs near $1 billion) Datapoint unveils the Multimedia Information Network eXchange (MINX) system early picture-in-picture VC solution source of extensive income from patent infringements rather than product sales

9 Into the Nineties (pt. 1) Internet Protocol (IP) technical advances Video compression technologies advance Ubiquity of desktop PCs Explosion in business & consumer use of internet in 1991: IBM introduced PicTel early PC-based vtc system black and white system low-resolution purchase costs of $20,000 per unit estimated operating costs of $30 per line an hour

10 Into the Nineties (pt. 2) 1991 - DARTnet connects a transcontinental IP network 12 research sites in the U.S. and the U.K. Use of T1 trunk lines (not true IPVC)- DARTnet, now known as the CAIRN system, still exists Late 1990’s: beginning IPVC Embedded within services & software offerings such as NetMeeting (Win95) MSN Messenger (1999) Yahoo Messenger (1998) Common Traits: poor video quality direct costs to consumers drove moderate adoption adjunct to unified communication and web conferencing

11 Into the Nineties (pt. 3) CU-SeeMee (Cornell University) 1992: Apple Macintosh launches with CU-SeeMe (no audio) Part of 1993 Global Schoolhouse (an NSF funded education project) 1993: multipoint capability added 1994: Win-based CU-SeeMe 1995: CU-SeeMe released commercially CU-SeeMe successes: first referenced “video chat” term peer-to-peer connection methodology somewhat limited applications early adoption into school rooms and training facilities used in 1995 television broadcast of World News Now

12 Into the Nineties (pt. 4) 1992: AT&T returns with $1500 videophone (small success) 1992: MBone (multicast backbone) system. minimizes data requirements for multipoint audio/video-conferencing free virtual network uses mrouters that can support IP multicast enables access to real-time interactive multimedia on the Internet negates need for tunneling protocols with older router environments Novell IPX Networks introduced VocalChat Microsoft NetMeeting (from PictureTel's Liveshare Plus) 1996 Dec: Microsoft NetMeeting v2.0b2 with video arrives

13 Into the Nineties (pt. 5) Real momentum? The development and ratification of compatibility standards by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) ITU Standards Unleash Videoconferencing ITU established the Standard H.263, which reduces bandwidth transmission for low bit-rate communications. Other standards: H.323 for packet-based multimedia applications MPEG-4 ver 2.0(by The Moving Picture Experts Group) an ISO standard for multimedia content Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) in 1999. SIP offered even further advantages beyond H.323 Gained wide acceptance among developers and supporters (Microsoft)

14 The New Millennium (pt. 1) SIP evolves as it entered version 1.30 in November of 2000. \ H.323 ver 4.0 release Explosive growth in cell/mobile phones. Samsung released MPEG-4 streaming 3G video cell -- huge overseas success Microsoft announces XP Messenger fully supports SIP. 9-11 Tragedy – outcomes Economic downturn forces cuts to corporate & institutional budgets Travel dramatically restricted & curtailed VTC is no longer a luxury but becomes a necessity Portable satellite videophones used for live battlefront broadcasts

15 The New Millennium (pt. 2) High-speed internet access available @ reasonable cost. Video capture/display technologies reduced in cost. Web cameras readily available (if not built-in) Cost of PCs at all time low Broadband internet access geographically available Free/embedded functionality from leading web conferencing, instant messaging, and unified communication vendors

16 The New Millennium (pt. 3) IPVC in Higher Ed Distance learning programs are mainstays of Education degrees Students require/demand enhanced classes with more interactive classroom-like environments. Streaming video quality has increased while disruptive delays almost eliminate Videoconferencing commonplace at work, home, and schools. began providing various MPEG-4 video systems to universities in the U.S

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