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**ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS**

Energy is constantly _________________ from one form to another. The sum of the _______________________ and __________________energy is called the ____________________________ energy (ME). 1. ME= __________ + ____________ II. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Energy is constantly changing from one form to another. The sum of the potential and kinetic energy is called the mechanical energy. 1. ME= __________ + ____________

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Energy Conversion Energy can be changed from one form to another. Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions.

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Energy conversions All forms of energy can be converted into other forms. The sun’s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. Green plants convert the sun’s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

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**Chemical Heat Mechanical**

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States of Energy The most common energy conversion is the conversion between potential and kinetic energy. All forms of energy can be in either of two states: Potential Kinetic

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**States of Energy: Kinetic and Potential Energy**

Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion. Potential Energy is stored energy.

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**Kinetic Energy The energy of motion is called kinetic energy.**

The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has. The greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has. Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity.

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Kinetic Energy K.E. = 1/2mv2 What has a greater affect of kinetic energy, mass or velocity? Why?

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**Potential Energy Potential Energy is stored energy.**

Stored because of the work done on it: Stretching a rubber band. Winding a watch. Pulling back on a bow’s arrow. Lifting a brick high in the air.

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Potential Energy Energy stored in an object due to its position is __________________ energy (PE). The _______________ the object off the ground the greater the position and the ______________ the potential energy. The formula for potential energy is ____________________. g=9.8 m/s2 on Earth 2. Energy stored in an object due to its position is potential energy. The higher the object off the ground greater the position and the larger the potential energy. The formula for potential energy is PE=mgh.

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Energy Problems Example 1: What is the Kinetic Energy of a 1000 kg car moving at 30 m/s?

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Energy Problems Example 2: What is the mass of a car moving of 10 m/s if its kinetic energy is 40,000 J?

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Energy Problems Example 3 : How fast is a 45 kg girl running if her kinetic energy is 51 J?

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Energy Problems Example 4: A 0.06 kg tennis ball is 2.9 m above the ground. How much potential energy does the ball have?

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Energy Problems Example 5: How high would a 55 kg boy need to be to have 700 J of potential energy?

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**Gravitational Potential Energy**

Potential energy that is dependent on height is called gravitational potential energy.

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Potential Energy Energy that is stored due to being stretched or compressed is called elastic potential energy.

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**Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion**

Roller coasters work because of the energy that is built into the system. Initially, the cars are pulled mechanically up the tallest hill, giving them a great deal of potential energy. From that point, the conversion between potential and kinetic energy powers the cars throughout the entire ride.

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**Kinetic vs. Potential Energy**

At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has minimum kinetic energy.

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**Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions**

As a basketball player throws the ball into the air, various energy conversions take place.

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Ball speeds up Ball slows down

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**The Law of Conservation of Energy**

Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by ordinary means. It can only be converted from one form to another. If energy seems to disappear, then scientists look for it – leading to many important discoveries.

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**Vocabulary Words energy mechanical energy thermal energy solar energy**

chemical energy electromagnetic energy nuclear energy kinetic energy potential energy gravitational potential energy energy conversion Law of Conservation of Energy

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